Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the effect of fouling on an axial compressor stage were carried out. As a case study, the NASA Stage 37 was considered for the numerical investigation, which was performed by means of a commercial computational fluid dynamic code. The numerical model was validated against the experimental data available from literature. Computed performance maps and main flow field features showed a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was considered representative of a realistic compressor stage. The model was then used to simulate the occurrence of fouling by imposing different combinations of added thickness and surface roughness levels. The effect of fouling on compressor performances was studied. Reductions in the flow coefficient and in the pressure coefficient were found to be of the same order of magnitude of the experimental results found in literature. The model developed seems to overcome some of the limitations of other models found in literature that tend to significantly underestimate the actual values of performance reduction. The numerical results were also used to analyze and debug the stage performance scaling procedure used in stage-stacking models in order to represent fouling in multistage compressors. The analysis highlighted that scaling can adequately represent the behavior of the fouled stage in the choked flow region, but it does not capture the reduction in the maximum of the pressure coefficient, which is instead revealed by the numerical simulations. Finally, blockage due to fouling was investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively.

1.
Morini
,
M.
,
Pinelli
,
M.
,
Spina
,
P. R.
, and
Venturini
,
M.
, 2010, “
Influence of Blade Deterioration on Compressor and Turbine Performance
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
132
(
3
), p.
032401
.
2.
Spina
,
P. R.
, 2002, “
Gas Turbine Performance Prediction by Using Generalized Performance Curves of Compressor and Turbine Stages
,” ASME Paper No. GT-2002-30275.
3.
Kurz
,
R.
,
Brun
,
K.
, and
Wollie
,
M.
, 2009, “
Degradation Effects on Industrial Gas Turbines
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
131
(
6
), p.
062401
.
4.
Bammert
,
K.
, and
Woelk
,
G. U.
, 1979, “
The Influence of the Blading Surface Roughness on the Aerodynamic Behavior and Characteristic of an Axial Compressor
,” ASME Paper No. 79-GT-102.
5.
Suder
,
K. L.
,
Chima
,
R. V.
,
Strazisar
,
A. J.
, and
Roberts
,
W. B.
, 1995, “
The Effect of Adding Roughness and Thickness to a Transonic Axial Compressor Rotor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
0889-504X,
117
(
4
), pp.
491
505
.
6.
Gbadebo
,
S. A.
,
Hynes
,
T. P.
, and
Cumpsty
,
N. A.
, 2004, “
Influence of Surface Roughness on Three-Dimensional Separation in Axial Compressors
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
0889-504X,
126
(
4
), pp.
455
463
.
7.
Syverud
,
E.
,
Brekke
,
O.
, and
Bakken
,
L. E.
, 2007, “
Axial Compressor Deterioration Caused by Saltwater Ingestion
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
0889-504X,
129
, pp.
119
127
.
8.
Syverud
,
E.
, and
Bakken
,
L. E.
, 2006, “
The Impact of Surface Roughness on Axial Compressor Performance Deterioration
,” ASME Paper No. GT-2006-90004.
9.
Reid
,
L.
, and
Moore
,
R. D.
, 1978, “
Design and Overall Performance of Four Highly-Loaded, High-Speed Inlet Stages for an Advanced High-Pressure-Ratio Core Compressor
,”
NASA
Report No. TP 1337.
10.
Benini
,
E.
, and
Biollo
,
R.
, 2007, “
Aerodynamics of Swept and Leaned Transonic Compressor-Rotors
,”
Appl. Energy
0306-2619,
84
, pp.
1012
1027
.
11.
ANSYS CFX 11.0, 2007, User Manual.
12.
ICEM CFD 11.0, 2007, User Manual.
13.
Apsley
,
D.
, 2007, “
CFD Calculation of Turbulent Flow With Arbitrary Wall Roughness
,”
Flow Turbul. Combust.
,
78
, pp.
153
175
. 1386-6184
14.
Schlichting
,
H.
, 1936, “
Experimental Investigation of the Problem of Surface Roughness
,” NACA Report No. TM 823.
15.
Nikuradse
,
J.
, 1933, “
Laws of Flow in Rough Pipes
,” NACA Report No. TM 1292.
16.
Sigal
,
A.
, and
Danberg
,
J. E.
, 1990, “
New Correlation of Roughness Density Effect on the Turbulent Boundary Layer
,”
AIAA J.
0001-1452,
28
(
3
), pp.
554
556
.
17.
Schlichting
,
H.
, 1960,
Boundary Layer Theory
,
4th ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
18.
Cadorin
,
M.
,
Morini
,
M.
, and
Pinelli
,
M.
, 2009, “
Numerical Analyses of High Reynolds Number Flow of High Pressure Fuel Gas Through Rough Pipes
,” ASME Paper No. GT-2009-59243.
19.
Koch
,
C. C.
, and
Smith
,
L. H.
, 1976, “
Loss Sources and Magnitudes in Axial Flow Compressors
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
98
, pp.
411
424
.
20.
Benini
,
E.
, and
Biollo
,
R.
, 2006, “
Validation of a Navier–Stokes Solver for CFD Computations of Transonic Compressors
,” ASME Paper No. ESDA-2006-5318.
21.
Muir
,
D. E.
,
Saravanamuttoo
,
H. I. H.
, and
Marshall
,
D. J.
, 1989, “
Health Monitoring of Variable Geometry Gas Turbines for the Canadian Navy
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
111
, pp.
244
250
.
22.
Howell
,
A. R.
, and
Bonham
,
R. P.
, 1950, “
Overall and Stage Characteristics of Axial Flow Compressors
,”
Proc. IMechE
,
163
, pp.
235
248
.
23.
Saravanamuttoo
,
H. I. H.
, and
Lakshminarasimha
,
A. N.
, 1985, “
A Preliminary Assessment of Compressor Fouling
,” ASME Paper No. 85-GT-153.
24.
Aker
,
G. F.
, and
Saravanamuttoo
H. I. H.
, 1988, “
Predicting Gas Turbine Performance Degradation Due to Compressor Fouling Using Computer Simulation Techniques
,” ASME Paper No. 88-GT-206.
25.
Seddigh
,
F.
, and
Saravanamuttoo
,
H. I. H.
, 1990, “
A Proposed Method for Assessing the Susceptibility of Axial Compressors to Fouling
,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-348.
26.
Tabakoff
,
W.
,
Lakshminarasimha
,
A. N.
, and
Pasin
,
M.
, 1990, “
Simulation of Compressor Performance Deterioration Due to Erosion
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
0889-504X,
112
, pp.
78
83
.
27.
Massardo
,
A.
, 1991, “
Simulation of Fouled Axial Multistage Compressors
,” IMechE Paper No. C423/048.
28.
Massardo
,
A.
, 1991, “
An Analytical Method for the Fault Diagnosis of Axial Multistage Compressors
,” ASME Paper No. 91-GT-66.
29.
Lakshminarasimha
,
A. N.
,
Boyce
,
M. P.
, and
Meher-Homji
,
C. B.
, 1994, “
Modeling and Analysis of Gas Turbine Performance Deterioration
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
116
, pp.
46
52
.
30.
Greitzer
,
E. M.
,
Tan
,
C. S.
, and
Graf
,
M. B.
, 2004,
Internal Flows—Concepts and Applications
,
Cambridge University Press
,
Cambridge
.
31.
Cumpsty
,
N. A.
, 1989,
Compressor Aerodynamics
,
Longmann
,
Harlow, UK
.
32.
Suder
,
K. L.
, 1996, “
Experimental Investigation of the Flow Field in a Transonic, Axial Flow Compressor With Respect to the Development of Blockage and Loss
,”
NASA
Report No. TM 107310.
You do not currently have access to this content.