The knock and combustion characteristics of CO, H2, CH4, and their mixtures were determined experimentally in a variable compression ratio spark ignition (SI) cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine. The significant effects of gaseous fuel mixtures containing H2 in enhancing the combustion and oxidation process of CH4 were examined. The unique combustion characteristics of CO in dry air and its distinct performance in mixtures with H-containing fuels were investigated. The addition of a simulated synthesis gas (2H2+CO) to CH4 was found to enhance the combustion process of the resulting mixture and lowers its knock resistance. The effectiveness of such an addition is slightly weaker than that of a comparable H2 addition but much stronger than that with CO addition only. A predictive model with detailed kinetic chemistry was used successfully to simulate SI engine operation fuelled with CH4, H2, CO, and their mixtures. The predicted engine performance and knock limits of CH4, H2, CO, and their mixtures agree well with experimental data with the exception around pure CO operation in dry air with the presence of small amounts of CH4 or H2. A remedial approach to improve the prediction of the knock limits of fuel mixtures containing mainly CO with a small amount of H-containing fuels such as H2 and CH4 was proposed and discussed.

1.
Karim
,
G. A.
, 2003, “
Hydrogen as a Spark Ignition Engine Fuel
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
0360-3199,
28
, pp.
569
577
.
2.
White
,
C. M.
,
Steeper
,
R. R.
, and
Lutz
,
A. E.
, 2006, “
The Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engine: A Technical Review
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
0360-3199,
31
, pp.
1292
1305
.
3.
Furuhama
,
S.
, and
Hiruma
,
M.
, 1977, “
Some Characteristics of Oil Consumption Measured by Hydrogen Fuelled Engine
,”
Journal of American Society of Lubrication Engineers
,
34
(
12
), pp.
665
675
.
4.
Li
,
H. L.
and
Karim
,
G. A.
, 2004, “
Examination of the Oil Consumption in a S.I. Hydrogen Engine
,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-2916.
5.
Kido
,
H.
,
Huang
,
S.
,
Tanoue
,
K.
, and
Nitta
,
T.
, 1994, “
Improving the Combustion Performance of Lean Hydrocarbon Mixture by Hydrogen Addition
,”
JSAE Rev.
0389-4304,
15
(
2
), pp.
165
170
.
6.
Bauer
,
C. G.
, and
Forest
,
T. W.
, 2001, “
Effect of Hydrogen Addition on the Performance of Methane-Fueled Vehicles. Part I: Effect on S.I. Engine Performance
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
0360-3199,
26
, pp.
55
70
.
7.
Herdin
,
G.
, 2007, “
Hydrogen and Hydrogen Mixtures as Fuel in Stationary Gas Engines
,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-0012.
8.
Lattin
,
W. C.
, and
Utgikar
,
V. P.
, 2007, “
Transition to Hydrogen Economy in the United States: A 2006 Status Report
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
0360-3199,
32
, pp.
3230
3237
.
9.
Marban
,
G.
, and
Valdes-Solis
,
T.
, 2007, “
Towards the Hydrogen Economy?
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
0360-3199,
32
, pp.
1625
1637
.
10.
Holt
,
D. J.
, 2003, “
Hydrogen and Its Future as a Transportation Fuel
,” SAE Paper No. PT-95.
11.
Liu
,
X. H.
,
Liu
,
F. S.
,
Zhou
,
L.
,
Sun
,
B. G.
, and
Schock
,
H.
, 2008, “
Backfire Prediction in a Manifold Injection Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
0360-3199,
33
, pp.
3847
3855
.
12.
Jamal
,
Y.
, and
Wyszynski
,
M. L.
, 1994, “
On-Board Generation of Hydrogen-Rich Gaseous Fuels—A Review
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
0360-3199,
19
, pp.
557
572
.
13.
Rabinnovich
,
A.
,
Bromberg
,
L.
,
Cohn
,
D. R.
,
Surma
,
J.
, and
Virden
,
J. W.
, 1998, “
Onboard Plasmatron Reforming of Bifuels, Gasoline and Diesel Fuel
,” SAE Paper No. 981920.
14.
Karim
,
G. A.
, and
Wierzba
,
I.
, 2008, “
The Production of Hydrogen Through the Uncatalyzed Partial Oxidation of Methane in an Internal Combustion Engine
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
0360-3199,
33
, pp.
2105
2110
.
15.
Shudo
,
T.
,
Nakajima
,
Y.
, and
Tsuga
,
K.
, 2001, “
Combustion Characteristics of H2–CO–CO2 Mixture in an IC Engine
,” SAE Paper No. 2001-01-0252.
16.
Andreatta
,
D.
, and
Dibble
,
R. W.
, 1996, “
An Experimental Study of Air-Reformed Natural Gas in S.I. Engines
,” SAE Paper No. 960852.
17.
Bromberg
,
L.
,
Cohn
,
D. R.
,
Rabinnovich
,
A.
, and
Heywood
,
J. B.
, 2001, “
Emissions Reductions Using Hydrogen From Plasmatron Fuel Converters
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
0360-3199,
26
, pp.
1115
1121
.
18.
Allenby
,
S.
,
Chang
,
W. -C.
,
Megaritis
,
A.
and
Wyszynski
,
M. L.
, 2001, “
Hydrogen Enrichment: A Way to Maintain Combustion Stability in a Natural Gas Fuelled Engine With Exhaust Gas Recirculation, the Potential of Fuel Reforming
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D (J. Automob. Eng.)
0954-4070,
215
, pp.
405
418
.
19.
Quader
,
A. A.
,
Kirwan
,
J. E.
, and
Grieve
,
M. J.
, 2003, “
Engine Performance and Emissions Near the Dilute Limit With Hydrogen Enrichment Using an On-Board Reforming Strategy
,” SAE Paper No. 2003-01-1356.
20.
Tsolakis
,
A.
,
Meharitis
,
A.
, and
Wyszynski
,
M. L.
, 2003, “
Application of Exhaust Gas Reforming in Compression Ignition Engines Fueled by Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Mixtures
,”
Energy Fuels
0887-0624,
17
, pp.
1464
1473
.
21.
Tsolakis
,
A.
, and
Megaritis
,
A.
, 2005, “
Combustion Characteristics and Exhaust Gas Emissions of a Diesel Engine Supplied With Reformed EGR
,” SAE Paper No. 2005-01-2087.
22.
Abu-Jrai
,
A.
,
Tsolakis
,
A.
, and
Megaritis
,
A.
, 2007, “
The Influence of H2 and CO on Diesel Engine Combustion Characteristics, Exhaust Emissions, and After Treatment Selective Catalytic NOx Reduction
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
0360-3199,
32
, pp.
3565
3571
.
23.
Zheng
,
M.
,
Asad
,
U.
,
Reader
,
G.
,
Han
,
X.
,
Pournazeri
,
M.
,
Ting
,
T.
, and
Wang
,
M.
, 2008, “
Diesel EGR Fuel Reformer Improvement with Flow Reversal and Central Fueling
,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-1607.
24.
Ashur
,
M.
,
Misztal
,
J.
,
Wyszynski
,
M. L.
,
Tsolakis
,
A.
,
Xu
,
H. M.
,
Qiao
,
J.
, and
Golunski
,
S.
, 2007, “
Onboard Exhaust Gas Reforming of Gasoline Using Integrated Reformer and TWC
,”
Eighth International Conference on Engines for Automobiles
, Capri (Naples), Italy, Sept., SAE Paper No. 2007-24-0078.
25.
Isherwood
,
K. D.
,
Linna
,
J. R.
, and
Loftus
,
P. J.
, 1998, “
Using On-Board Fuel Reforming by Partial Oxidation to Improve SI Engine Cold-Start Performance and Emissions
,” SAE Paper No. 980939.
26.
Hosseini
,
V.
, and
Checkel
,
M. D.
, 2008, “
Reformer Gas Composition Effect on HCCI Combustion of n-Heptane, Iso-Octane, and Natural Gas
,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-0049.
27.
Topinka
,
J. A.
,
Gerty
,
M. D.
, and
Heywood
,
J. B.
, 2004, “
Knock Behavior of a Lean-Burn, H2 and CO Enhanced, SI Gasoline Engine Concept
,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-0975.
28.
Karim
,
G. A.
, and
Klat
,
S. R.
, 1966, “
The Measurement of the Mass Flow Rate of Different Gases Using a Choked Nozzle
,”
Lab. Pract.
0023-6853,
15
, pp.
184
186
.
29.
Attar
,
A. A.
, and
Karim
,
G. A.
, 2003, “
Knock Rating of Gaseous Fuels
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
125
, pp.
41
47
.
30.
Owen
,
K.
, and
Coley
,
T.
, 1995,
Automotive Fuels Reference Book
,
2nd ed.
,
Society of Automotive Engineers
,
Warrendale, PA
.
31.
Ryan
,
T. W.
,
Callahan
,
T. J.
, and
King
,
S. R.
, 1993, “
Engine Knock Rating of Natural Gases-Methane Number
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
115
, pp.
769
776
.
32.
Li
,
H. L.
, and
Karim
,
G. A.
, 2006, “
Hydrogen Fueled Spark-Ignition Engines Predictive and Experimental Performance
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
128
(
1
), pp.
230
236
.
33.
Anthonissen
,
E.
, and
Wallace
,
J. S.
, 1983, “
Dissociated Methanol Engine Testing Results Using H2–CO Mixtures
,”
Proceedings of the 18th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference
, Aug. 21–26, pp.
549
556
.
34.
Kirwan
,
J. E.
,
Quader
,
A. A.
, and
Grieve
,
M. J.
, 1999, “
Advanced Engine Management Using On-Board Gasoline Partial Oxidation Reforming for Meeting Super-ULEV (SULEV) Emissions Standards
,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01–2927.
35.
Rodrigues
,
R.
, and
Bade Shrestha
,
S. O.
, 2006 “
Knock Rating of Gaseous Fuels in the Presence of Diluents
,” SAE Paper No. 2006-01-3429.
36.
Li
,
H. L.
, and
Karim
,
G. A.
, 2008, “
Modeling the Performance of a Turbo-Charged S.I. Natural Gas Engine With Cooled EGR
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
130
, p.
032804
.
37.
Bade Shrestha
,
S. O.
, and
Karim
,
G. A.
, 1999, “
A Predictive Model for Gas Fuelled Spark Ignition Engine Applications
,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-3482.
38.
Bade Shrestha
,
S. O.
, and
Karim
,
G. A.
, 1999, “
Hydrogen as an Additive to Methane for Spark Ignition Engine Applications
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
0360-3199,
24
, pp.
577
586
.
39.
Bade Shrestha
,
S. O.
, and
Karim
,
G. A.
, 2001, “
An Experimental and Analytical Examination of the Combustion Period for Gas-Fuelled Spark Ignition Engine Applications
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A
0957-6509,
215
, pp.
1
12
.
40.
Bade Shrestha
,
S. O.
, and
Karim
,
G. A.
, 2006, “
The Operational Mixture Limits in Engines Fuelled by Alternative Gaseous Fuels
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
0195-0738,
128
(
3
), pp.
223
228
.
41.
Woschni
,
G.
, 1967, “
A Universal Applicable Equation for the Instantaneous Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Internal Combustion Engines
,”
SAE Trans.
0096-736X,
76
, pp.
3065
3083
.
42.
Karim
,
G. A.
, 2004, “
A Dimensionless Criterion for Predicting the Onset of Knock in Spark Ignition Engine
,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-1992.
43.
Glassman
,
I.
, 1987,
Combustion
,
Academic
,
New York
.
44.
Turns
,
S. R.
, 1996,
An Introduction to Combustion: Concepts and Applications
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
45.
Mclean
,
I. C.
,
Smith
,
D. B.
, and
Taylor
,
S. C.
, 1994, “
The Use of Carbon Monoxide/Hydrogen Burning Velocities to Examine the Rate of the CO+OH Reaction
,”
25th Symposium (International) on Combustion
, pp.
749
757
.
46.
Li
,
H. L.
, 2004, “
An Experimental and Analytical Examination of Gas Fuelled Spark Ignition Engine—Performance and Combustion
,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
You do not currently have access to this content.