Expanding the range of HCCI operation will be critical for maximizing the fuel economy benefits in future vehicle applications. The mixture stratification, both thermal and compositional, can have very tangible impact on HCCI combustion, and gaining a deeper insight into these effects is critical for expanding the HCCI range of operation. This paper presents results of the comprehensive experimental investigation of the mixture preparation effects on a single-cylinder gasoline HCCI engine with exhaust reinduction. The effects include the type of mixture preparation (external mixing versus direct injection), charge motion, and injection timing. A combination of pressure-based combustion diagnostics, emission analysis, and heat flux measurements on the combustion chamber wall quantifies the effects on combustion and provides insight into reasons for observed engine behavior. As an example, the instantaneous temperature and heat flux measurements show the fuel impingement locations and allow assessing the fuel film dynamics and their effect on mixture stratification. The effects of direct injection and partial closing of the swirl control valve are relatively small compared with extending the injection timing late into the intake process or completely closing the swirl control valve and allowing charge storage in the intake port.

1.
Grenda
,
J.
, 2004, “
Numerical Modeling of Charge Stratification for the Combustion Control of HCCI Engines
,” unpublished;
Aroonsrisopon
,
T.
,
Werner
,
P.
,
Waldman
,
J.
,
Sohm
,
V.
,
Forester
,
D.
,
Morikawa
,
T.
, and
Iida
,
M.
, “
Expanding the HCCI Operation With the Charge Stratification
,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-1756.
2.
Sjoberg
,
M.
, and
Dec
,
J. E.
, 2005, “
Effects of Engine Speed, Fueling Rate, and Combustion Phasing on the Thermal Stratification Required to Limit HCCI Knocking Intensity
,” SAE Paper No. 2005-01-2125.
3.
Sjoberg
,
M.
,
Edling
,
L.
,
Eliassen
,
T.
,
Magnusson
,
L.
, and
Angstrom
,
H.
, 2002, “
GDI HCCI: Effects of Injection Timing and Air Swirl on Fuel Stratification, Combustion and Emissions Formation
,” SAE Paper No. 2002-01-0106.
4.
Aleiferis
,
P. G.
,
Charalambides
,
A. G.
,
Hardalupas
,
Y.
,
Taylor
,
A. M. K. P.
, and
Urata
,
Y.
, 2005, “
Modeling and Experiments of HCCI Engine Combustion Charge Stratification and Internal EGR
,” SAE Paper No. 2005-01-3725.
5.
Reuss
,
D. L.
, and
Sick
,
V.
, 2005, “
Inhomogeneities in HCCI Combustion: An Imaging Study
,” SAE Paper No. 2005-01-2122.
6.
Dec
,
J. E.
, and
Sjoberg
,
M.
, 2004, “
Isolating the Effects of Fuel Chemistry on Combustion Phasing in an HCCI Engine and the Potential of Fuel Stratification for Ignition Control
,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-0557.
7.
Najt
,
P. M.
, and
Foster
,
D. E.
, 1983, “
Compression-Ignited Homogeneous Charge Combustion
,” SAE Paper No. 830264.
8.
Aceves
,
S. M.
, 2001, “
A Sequential Fluid-Mechanic Chemical-Kinetic Model of Propane HCCI Combustion
,” SAE Paper No. 2001-01-1027.
9.
Aceves
,
S.
,
Flowers
,
D.
,
Martinez-Frias
,
J.
,
Espiosa-Loza
,
F.
,
Christensen
,
M.
,
Johansson
,
B.
, and
Hessel
,
R.
, 2005, “
Analysis of the Effect of Geometry Generated Turbulence on HCCI Combustion by Multi-Zone Modeling
,” SAE Paper No. 2005-01-2134.
10.
Sun
,
Y.
,
Shuai
,
S.
,
Wang
,
J.
, and
Wang
,
Y.
, 2003, “
Numerical Simulation of Mixture Formation and Combustion of Gasoline Engines With Multi-Stage Direct Injection Compression Ignition (DICI)
,” SAE Paper No. 2003-01-1091.
11.
Christensen
,
M.
, and
Johansson
,
B.
, 2002, “
The Effect of In-Cylinder Flow and Turbulence on HCCI Operation
,” SAE Paper No. 2002-01-2864.
12.
Kong
,
S.
,
Marriott
,
C. D.
,
Rutland
,
C. J.
, and
Reitz
,
R. D.
, 2002, “
Experiments and CFD Modeling of Direct Injection Gasoline HCCI Engine Combustion
,” SAE Paper No. 2002-01-1925.
13.
Chang
,
J.
,
Guralp
,
O.
,
Filipi
,
Z.
,
Assanis
,
D.
,
Kuo
,
T.
,
Najt
,
P.
, and
Rask
,
R.
, 2004, “
New Heat Transfer Correlation for an HCCI Engine Derived From Measurements of Instantaneous Surface Heat Flux
,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-2996.
14.
Chang
,
J.
, 2004, “
Thermal Characterization and Heat Transfer Study of a Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Via Measurements of Instantaneous Wall Temperature and Heat Flux in the Combustion Chamber
,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan.
15.
Chang
,
J.
,
Filipi
,
Z.
,
Assanis
,
D.
,
Kuo
,
T.
,
Najt
,
P.
, and
Rask
,
R.
, 2005, “
Characterizing The Thermal Sensitivity of a Gasoline HCCI Engine With Measurements of Instantaneous Wall Temperature and Heat Flux
,”
Int. J. Engine Res.
1468-0874,
6
, Special Issue Paper No. 289.
16.
Chang
,
J.
,
Filipi
,
Z.
,
Assanis
,
D.
,
Kuo
,
T.
,
Najt
,
P.
, and
Rask
,
R.
, 2007, “
Investigation of Mixture Preparation Effects on Gasoline HCCI Combustion Aided by Measurements of Wall Heat Flux
,” Charleston, SC, ASME Paper No. ICEF2007–1698.
17.
Witze
,
P. O.
, and
Green
,
R. M.
, 2005, “
Comparison of Single and Dual Spray Fuel Injectors During Cold Start of a PF I Spark Ignition Engine Using Visualization of Liquid Fuel Films and Pool Fires
,” SAE Paper No. 2005-01-3863.
18.
Ohyama
,
Y.
,
Nogi
,
T.
, and
Ohsuga
,
M.
, 1992, “
Effects of Fuel/Air Mixture Preparation on Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emission in a Spark Ignition Engine
,” IMechE Paper No. C389/232, p.
59
.
19.
Drake
,
M. C.
,
Fansler
,
T. D.
,
Solomon
,
A. S.
, and
Szekely
,
G. A.
, 2003, “
Piston Fuel Films as a Source of Smoke and Hydrocarbon Emissions From a Wall-Controlled Spark-Ignited Direct—Injection Engine
,” SAE Paper No. 2003-01-0547.
20.
Chang
,
J.
,
Guralp
,
O.
,
Filipi
,
Z.
,
Assanis
,
D.
,
Kuo
,
T.
,
Najt
,
P.
, and
Rask
,
R.
, 2006, “
Method for Mid Load Operation of Auto-Ignition Combustion
,” U.S. Patent No. 7128,062.
You do not currently have access to this content.