This paper reports on an investigation into the transient, compressible flow physics that impact the trapped equivalence ratio. A comprehensive, variable geometry, multicylinder turbocharger-reciprocating engine computer simulation (T-RECS) has been developed to illustrate the effect of airflow imbalance on an engine. A new model, the charge air integrated manifold engine numerical simulation (CAIMENS), is a manifold flow model coupled with the T-RECS engine processor that uses an integrated set of fundamental principles to determine the crank angle-resolved pressure, temperature, burned and unburned mass fractions, and gas exchange rates for the cylinder. CAIMENS has the ability to show the transient impact of one cylinder firing on each successive cylinder. The pulsation model also describes the impact of manifold pressure drop on in-cylinder peak pressure and the pressure wave introduced to the intake manifold by uncovering the intake ports. CAIMENS provides the information necessary to quantify the impact of airflow imbalance, and allows for the visualization of the engine system before and after airflow correction. The model shows that not only does the manifold pressure drop have a significant impact on the in-cylinder peak pressure but it also has an impact on the pressure wave introduced to the intake manifold as the ports are opened. Also, each cylinder has a considerable impact on the airflow into each successive cylinder.

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