By being exposed to atmospheric conditions gas turbines are inevitably subjected to sources of fouling. The resulting degradation can be partially recovered by cleaning the compressor. Based on open literature and patents, the different approaches leading to the most advanced method of compressor online washing have been compiled. The origins of online washing and the development trends over the decades are outlined, and the current systems are categorized. The introduction of system categories has been justified by a field survey. Additionally, the main design parameters of online washing systems are summarized.

1.
Diakunchak
,
I. S.
, 1992, “
Performance Deterioration in Industrial Gas Turbines
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
114
, pp.
161
168
.
2.
Scheper
,
G. W.
,
Mayoral
,
A. J.
, and
Hipp
,
E. J.
, 1978, “
Maintaining Gas Turbine Compressors for High Efficiency
,”
Power Eng.
,
82
(
8
), pp.
54
57
.
3.
Mezheritsky
,
A. D.
, and
Sudarev
,
A. V.
, 1990, “
The Mechanism of Fouling and the Cleaning Technique in Application to Flow Parts of the Power Generation Plant Compressors
,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-103.
4.
Becker
,
B.
, and
Bohn
,
D.
, 1984, “
Operating Experience With Compressors of Large Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines
,” ASME Paper No. 84-GT-133.
5.
Bagshaw
,
K. W.
, 1974, “
Maintaining Cleanliness in Axial Compressors
,”
Gas Turbine Operation and Maintenance Symposium 1974
, National Research Council (eds.), Toronto, Canada, pp.
247
264
.
6.
Thames
,
J. M.
,
Stegmaier
,
J. W.
, and
Ford
,
J. J.
, Jr.
, 1989, “
On-Line Compressor Washing Practices and Benefits
,” ASME Paper No. 89-GT-91.
7.
Leusden
,
C. P.
,
Sorgenfrey
,
C.
, and
Duemmel
,
L.
, 2004, “
Performance Benefits Using Siemens Advanced Compressor Cleaning System
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
126
, pp.
763
769
.
8.
Abdelrazik
,
A.
, and
Cheney
,
P.
, 1991, “
Compressor Cleaning Effectiveness for Marine Gas Turbines
,” ASME Paper No. 91-GT-11.
9.
Butler
,
J. J.
, 2002, “
Inside Out Gas Turbine Compressor Cleaning Method
,” U.S. Patent No. 6,394,108 B1.
10.
Faddegon
,
C. J.
, 1999, “
Effective Compressor Cleaning as a Result of Scientific Testing and Field Experience
” (private communication).
11.
Kulle
,
V.
, 1974, “
Gas Turbine Blade Cleaning at Alberta Gas Trunk Line (AGTL)
,”
Gas Turbine Operation and Maintenance Symposium 1974
, National Research Council (eds.), Toronto, Canada, pp.
265
271
.
12.
Brittain
,
D.
, 1983, “
Cleaning Gas Turbine Compressors
,”
Aircr. Eng.
0002-2667,
55
(
1
), pp.
15
17
.
13.
Langford
,
J. R. F.
, 1977, “
Contamination Removal Method
,” U.S. Patent No. 4,065,322.
14.
Millsaps
,
K. T.
,
Baker
,
J.
, and
Patterson
,
J. S.
, 2004, “
Detection and Localization of Fouling in a Gas Turbine Compressor From Aerodynamic Measurements
,” ASME Paper No. GT2004–54173.
15.
Boyce
,
M. P.
,
Bowman
,
J. C.
,
Meher-Homji
,
C. B.
, and
Focke
,
A. B.
, 1985, “
Energy Efficient Operation of Gas Turbine Compressor Sets
,” ASME Paper No. 85-GT-70.
16.
Fielder
,
J.
, 2003, “
Evaluation of Zero Compressor Wash Routine in RN Service
,” ASME Paper No. GT2003–38887.
17.
Testman
,
F. L.
, Jr.
, 1999, “
Engine Wash Recovery System
,” U.S. Patent No. 5,899,217.
18.
Anon.
, 1999,
LM2500 Military Marine Gas Turbine Installation Design Manual
, GE Marine Engines, Cincinnati.
19.
Asplund
,
P.
, 1997, “
Gas Turbine Cleaning Upgrade (Compressor Wash)
,” ASME Paper No. 97-AA-135.
20.
Adams
,
J.
, and
Schmitt-Wittrock
,
P.
, 1981, “
Optimierung der Reinigungsintervalle von Gasturbinenverdichtern
,”
Brennst.-Waerme-Kraft
0006-9612,
33
(
1
), pp.
25
31
.
21.
Haub
,
G. L.
, and
Hauhe
,
W. E.
, Jr.
, 1990, “
Field Evaluation of On-Line Compressor Cleaning in Heavy Duty Industrial Gas Turbines
,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-107.
22.
Asplund
,
P.
, 1996, “
A Method of Washing Objects, Such as Turbine Compressors
,” World Intellectual Property Organization, Patent Cooperation Treaty, WO96/40453.
23.
Chum
,
K. Y.
, 2002, “
Effectiveness of Online and Offline Compressor Water Wash
,”
9FA Users’ Conference
, Nov. 11.
24.
Stalder
,
J.-P.
, 2004, Comment to the Paper Presentation:
Engdar
,
U.
,
Orbay
,
R.
,
Genrup
,
M.
, and
Klingmann
,
J.
, 2004, “
Investigation of the Two-Phase Flow Field of the GTX100 Compressor Inlet During Off-Line Washing
,” ASME Paper No. GT2004–53141.
25.
Engdar
,
U.
,
Orbay
,
R.
,
Genrup
,
M.
, and
Klingmann
,
J.
, 2004, “
Investigation of the Two-Phase Flow Field of the GTX100 Compressor Inlet During Off-Line Washing
,” ASME Paper No. GT2004–53141.
26.
Margolis
,
H.
, 1991, “
U.S. Navy On-Line Compressor Washing of Marine Gas Turbines
,” ASME Paper No. 91-GT-309.
27.
VGB
, 1991, “
Reinigungsverfahren für Verdichter-und Turbinenbeschaufelungen an Gasturbinen im offenen Prozess
,”
VGB Technische Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerk-betreiber e.V.
,
VGB Merkblatt 106
,
2nd Edition
,
VGB-Kraftwerkstechnik GmbH
, Essen, Germany, pp.
10
11
.
28.
Lambart
,
P.
,
Gordon
,
R.
, and
Burnett
,
M.
, 2003, “
Developments in On-Line Gas Turbine Compressor Cleaning
,”
Institution of Diesel and Gas Turbine Engineers, 2nd Gas Turbine Conference 2003
, Milton Keynes, UK, pp.
136
142
.
29.
Stalder
,
J.-P.
, 2001, “
Gas Turbine Compressor Washing State of the Art: Field Experiences
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
123
, pp.
363
370
.
30.
Mast
,
M.
, and
Bohrenkämper
,
G.
, 2001, “
Modernisation and Upgrading Products for Siemens V94.2 Gas Turbines
,”
10th Meeting of V94.2 Gas Turbine Users
, May 7–8, Rosignano Solvay, Italy.
31.
Saravanamuttoo
,
H. I. H.
, 1974, “
Comments or Questions and Speakers’ Replies
,”
Gas Turbine Operation and Maintenance Symposium 1974
, National Research Council (eds.), Toronto, Canada, p.
305
.
32.
Meher-Homji
,
C. B.
, and
Bromley
,
A.
, 2004, “
Gas Turbine Axial Compressor Fouling and Washing
,”
33rd Turbomachinery Symposium
,
Texas A&M University
, pp.
163
191
.
33.
Freid
,
W. B.
, and
Tapparo
,
D. J.
, 1971, “
Wash Manifold
,” U.S. Patent No. 3,623,668.
34.
Mansson
,
M.
, 1977, “
Washing Apparatus for a Compound Compressor
,” U.S. Patent No. 4,046,155.
35.
Elser
,
W.
, 1973, “
Betriebserfahrungen beim Reinigen der Verdichter von Rolls-Royce Strahltriebwerken
,”
Brennst.-Waerme-Kraft
0006-9612,
25
(
9
), pp.
347
348
.
36.
Elser
,
W.
, 1975, “
Betriebserfahrungen beim Reinigen der Verdichter von Rolls-Royce-Strahltriebwerken
,”
Brennst.-Waerme-Kraft
0006-9612,
27
(
1
), pp.
19
21
.
37.
McDermott
,
P.
, 1991, “
Method and Apparatus for Cleaning a Gas Turbine Engine
,” U.S. Patent No. 5,011,540.
38.
Hornak
,
S. S.
,
Lowdermilk
,
R. S.
, and
Miller
,
R. A.
, 1980, “
Removable Wash Spray Apparatus for Gas Turbine Engine
,” U.S. Patent 4,196,020.
39.
Woodson
,
J. B.
,
Cooper
,
L. A.
,
White
,
H. M.
, and
Fischer
,
G. C.
, 1989, “
Cleaning Gas Turbine Compressors
,” U.S. Patent 4,808,235.
40.
Kaes
,
G.
, 1991, “
Method of a Cleaning Agent for the Cleaning of Compressors Especially Gas Turbines
,” U.S. Patent No. 5,076,855.
41.
Kolkman
,
H. J.
, 1992, “
Performance of Gas Turbine Compressor Cleaners
,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT–360.
42.
Ackerman
,
J. F.
,
Stowell
,
W. R.
, and
Johnson
,
R. A.
, 2003, “
Methods and Apparatus for Washing Gas Turbine Engines
,” U.S. Patent No. 6,630,198B2.
43.
Kolev
,
S.
, and
Robben
,
R.
, 1993, “
Injection Device for the On-Line Wet Cleaning of Compressors
,” U.S. Patent No. 5,193,976.
44.
Stalder
,
J.-P.
, and
van Oosten
,
P.
, 1994, “
Compressor Washing Maintains Plant Performance and Reduces Cost of Energy Production
,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT–436.
45.
Patterson
,
J. S.
, and
Spring
,
S. K.
, 1992, “
On-Line Detergent Washing: Reducing the Environmental Effects on the LCAC Gas Turbine Engines
,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT-269.
46.
Harris
,
H.
, and
Calabrese
,
M.
, 1994, “
On-Line Detergent Fluid Evaluation on a TF40B Gas Turbine Engine
,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-452.
47.
Hayward
,
J.
,
Winson
,
G.
, and
Raatrae
,
A.
, 1999, “
Wash System for Gas Turbine Compressors
,” European Patent Application No. EP0933502A2.
48.
GE Systems
, 2001, “
Compressor Rotor R-0 Blade Erosion
,” Technical Information Letter, TIL 1303–1R1, GE Energy Services.
49.
Trewin
,
R. R.
, and
Carberg
,
W. G.
, 2002, “
Combined System for Cooling by Water Injection and Washing of a Gas Turbine Compressor
,” European Patent Application No. EP1205640A2.
50.
Ingistov
,
S.
, 2002, “
Method an Apparatus for Increasing the Efficiency of a Multi-Stage Compressor
,” U.S. Patent No. 6,398,518B1.
51.
Jeffs
,
E.
, 2003, “
Innovative On-Line Wash Nozzles for Large Turbines
,”
Turbomach. Int.
,
44
(
3
), reprint.
52.
Fetescu
,
M.
, 1998, “
Method and Apparatus for Keeping Clean and/or Cleaning Gas Turbine Using Externally Generated Sound
,” U.S. Patent No. 5,758,486.
53.
Syverud
,
E.
,
Bakken
,
L. E.
,
Langnes
,
K.
, and
Bjørnås
,
F.
, 2003, “
Gas Turbine Operation Offshore; On-Line Compressor Wash at Peak Load
,” ASME Paper No. GT-2003–38071.
54.
Harland
,
S.
, 2002, Didcot B power plant visit (private communication).
55.
Jeffs
,
E.
, 1992, “
Compressor Washing on Line for Large Gas Turbines
,”
Turbomach. Int.
,
33
(
5
), pp.
49
51
.
56.
Fairhurst
,
W.
, 2003 (private communication).
57.
Kacprzynski
,
G. J.
,
Caguiat
,
D. E.
,
Gumina
,
M.
,
Galie
,
T. R.
,
Roemer
,
M. J.
, and
McGroarty
,
J. J.
, 2001, “
A Prognostic Modelling Approach for Predicting Recurring Maintenance for Shipboard Propulsion Systems
,” ASME Paper No. 2001-GT-0218.
You do not currently have access to this content.