Extensive flow visualization in an automotive fuel filler pipe made visible by introducing dyes and smoke in water and air, respectively, were conducted for nominal flow rates of 4–18 liters per minute. Video and still cameras were used for imaging. Features of the flow such as laminar-to-turbulent transition, progressive development of strong swirl along filler pipe axis, air entrainment, and mixing with the liquid were observed in the experiments. The experimental observations were supported by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the flow which also showed features such as swirl and air entrainment.

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