This research addresses the growing need to better understand the mechanisms through which engine-out formaldehyde is formed in two-stroke cycle large bore natural gas engines. The investigation is performed using a number of different in-cylinder sampling techniques implemented on a Cooper-Bessemer GMV-4TF four-cylinder two-stroke cycle large bore natural gas engine with a 36-cm (14-in.) bore and a 36-cm (14-in.) stroke. The development and application of various in-cylinder sampling techniques is described. Three different types of valves are utilized, (1) a large sample valve for extracting a significant fraction of the cylinder mass, (2) a fast sample valve for crank angle resolution, and (3) check valves. Formaldehyde in-cylinder sampling data are presented that show formaldehyde mole fractions at different times during the engine cycle and at different locations in the engine cylinder. The test results indicate that the latter part of the expansion process is a critical time for engine-out formaldehyde formation. The data show that significant levels of formaldehyde form during piston and end-gas compression. Additionally, formaldehyde is measured during the combustion process at mole fractions five to ten times higher than engine-out formaldehyde mole fractions. Formaldehyde is nearly completely destroyed during the final part of the combustion process. The test results provide insights that advance the current understanding and help direct future work on formaldehyde formation.

1.
Coerr, L. F., Coerr, S. P., and Clowney, S. L., 1998, “EPA’s Regulation of Air Toxic Emissions Under the Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking (ICCR),” Proceedings of the 1998 Spring Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division, Vol. 1, Paper No. 98-ICE-79.
2.
Olsen, D. B., and Mitchell, C. E., 1998, “Factors Affecting Measured CH2O in Large Bore Natural Gas Engines,” Proceedings of the 1998 Spring Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division, Vol. 1, Paper No. 98-ICE-81.
3.
Kirschner, P. K., 1998, “Formaldehyde Emissions From Caterpillar 3600 Series Engines Utilizing Field Gas as Fuel,” Proceedings of the 1998 Spring Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division, Vol. 1, Paper No. 98-ICE-83.
4.
Shareef, G. S., Ferry, K. R., Gundappa, M., Leatherwood, C. A., Ogle, L. D., Campbell, L. M., 1996, “Measurement of Air Toxic Emissions from Natural Gas-Fired Internal Combustion Engines at Natural Gas Transmission and Storage Facilities, Vol. 1,” Gas Research Institute, GRI-96/0009.1, Chicago, Illinois.
5.
LoRusso
,
J. A.
,
Kaiser
,
E. W.
, and
Lavoie
,
G. A.
,
1983
, “
In-Cylinder Measurements of Wall Layer Hydrocarbons in a Spark Ignited Engine
,”
Combust. Sci. Technol.
,
33
, pp.
75
112
.
6.
Tobis, B. J., Meyer, R., Yang, J., Brehob, D. D., and Anderson, R. W., 1994, “Scavenging of a Firing Two-Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine,” Society of Automotive Engineers, Paper No. 940393.
7.
Kannappan, A., 1964, “A New Method for Evaluating the Scavenging Performance of Two-Stroke Diesel Engines,” Society of Automotive Engineers, Paper No. 640370.
8.
Booy, R. R., 1967, “Evaluating Scavenging Efficiency of Two-Stroke Cycle Gasoline Engines,” Society of Automotive Engineers, Paper No. 670029.
9.
Houtsma, C. G., et al., 1950, “Correlation of Scavenging Ratio and Scavenging Efficiency in 2-Stroke Compression-Ignition Engine,” MIT thesis, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
10.
Taylor, C. F., and Rogowiski, A. R., 1954, “Scavenging the 2-Stroke Engine,” SAE Transactions, Vol. 62.
11.
Heywood, J. B., 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, New York.
12.
Gatowski, J. A., Balles, E. N., Chun, K. M., Nelson, F. E., Ekchian, J. A., and Heywood, J. B., 1984, “Heat Release Analysis of Engine Pressure Data,” Society of Automotive Engineers, Paper No. 841359.
13.
Karim, G. A., Ito, K., Abraham, M., and Jensen, L., 1991, “An Examination of the Role of Formaldehyde in the Ignition Process of a Dual Fuel Engine,” Society of Automotive Engineers, Paper No. 912367.
14.
Mitchell, C. E., and Olsen, D. B., 1998, “Formaldehyde Formation Mechanisms in Large Bore Natural Gas Engines,” ASME-ICE Conference April 1998, Paper No. 98-ICE 80.
15.
Ruy, C., 1994, “Zur ReactionKinetik bei der Erdgas/Methan-Verbrennung im Hinblick auf das Zwischenprodukt Formaldehyde,” GASWARME International, March 1994, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 102–109.
You do not currently have access to this content.