Advances in gas turbine technology have led to levels of turbine inlet temperature that preclude the use of thermocouple and simple gas analysis techniques for gas temperature determination. Simple gas analysis schemes rely on the measurement of a very limited range of species in the gas sample: typically, CO2, CO, and hydrocarbons (UHC). A method of estimating the other important species is required. Simple gas analysis schemes that rely only on elemental mass balance equations to determine the concentration of species are inadequate where high temperature results in significant dissociation. A method has been developed to enable temperature determination at levels that render simple schemes inaccurate. The procedure is based on the measurement of CO2, CO, UHC, and oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust gas. Other species concentrations are calculated using an assumption of partial thermodynamic equilibrium. This allows the calculation of many important combustion parameters. The method has been implemented as a computer code, with an object orientated design approach using the C++ language. The paper details the theory behind the approach and its implementation. The expected errors for practical applications are discussed and quantified. The method is illustrated by an exhaust temperature pattern factor investigation of an annular combustor. Temperatures determined by thermocouples are compared with those calculated from gas samples.

1.
American Society For Testing and Materials, 1996, Standard Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants, D5291–96.
2.
Burden, R. L., and Faires, J. D., 1989, Numerical Analysis, 4,th ed., PWS-Kent, Boston, pp. 544–551.
3.
Ferguson, C. R., 1985a, Internal Combustion Engines, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 121–122.
4.
Ferguson, C. R., 1985b, Internal Combustion Engines, John Wiley & Sons, New York, p. 201.
5.
Gordon, S., and McBride, B. J., 1971, “Computer Program for the Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions, Rocket Performance, Incident and Reflected Shocks, and Chapman-Jouguet Detonations,” NASA SP-273.
6.
Grossman, S. I., 1988, Calculus, 4th ed., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, pp. 716–171.
7.
Hurley, C. D., 1988, “The Calculation of Flame Gas Temperatures From Measurements of Chemical Composition,” technical memo, Royal Aerospace Establishment, P1139.
8.
Institute of Petroleum, 1984, “Methods For Analysis And Testing,” Part 1. Vol. 1, Wiley, London, pp. 12.1–12.17.
9.
Press, W. H., Vetterling, W. T., Teukolsky, S. A., and Flannery, 1992, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 379–383.
10.
Press, W. H., Vetterling, W. T., Teukolsky, S. A., and Flannery, 1992, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 383–389.
11.
Rogers, G. F. C., and Mayhew, Y. R., 1980, Engineering Thermodynamics Work and Heat Transfer, 3rd ed., Longman, Hong-Kong, p. 35.
12.
Scott, C. J., 1991, “Gas Analysis Temperature Deductions. Uncertainties and Newly Identified Problems,” internal report, Rolls-Royce, United Kingdom.
13.
Strehlow, R. A., 1984a, Combustion Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, Singapore, pp. 99–103.
14.
Strehlow, R. A., 1984b, Combustion Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, Singapore, p. 40.
15.
Zeleznik, F. J., and Gordon, S., 1968, “Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibria,” Applied Thermodynamics Symposium, Vol. 60, No. 6.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.