This work addresses primary atomization modeling, multidimensional spray prediction, and flow characteristics of compound nozzle gasoline injectors. Compound nozzles are designed to improve the gasoline spray quality by increasing turbulence at the injector exit. Under the typical operating conditions of 270-1015 kPa, spray atomization in the compound nozzle gasoline injectors is mainly due to primary atomization where the flow turbulence and the surface tension are the dominant factors. A primary atomization model has been developed to predict the mean droplet size far downstream by taking into account the effect of turbulent intensity at the injector exit. Two multidimensional spray codes, KIVA-2 and STAR-CD, originally developed for high-pressure diesel injection, are employed for the lower-pressure gasoline injection. A separate CFD analysis was performed on the complex internal flows of the compound nozzles to obtain the initial and boundary conditions for the spray codes. The TAB breakup model used in KIVA-2 adequately facilitates the atomization process in the gasoline injection.
Primary Atomization and Spray Analysis of Compound Nozzle Gasoline Injectors
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Chen, J. L., Wells, M., and Creehan, J. (January 1, 1998). "Primary Atomization and Spray Analysis of Compound Nozzle Gasoline Injectors." ASME. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. January 1998; 120(1): 237–243. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2818082
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