This work addresses primary atomization modeling, multidimensional spray prediction, and flow characteristics of compound nozzle gasoline injectors. Compound nozzles are designed to improve the gasoline spray quality by increasing turbulence at the injector exit. Under the typical operating conditions of 270-1015 kPa, spray atomization in the compound nozzle gasoline injectors is mainly due to primary atomization where the flow turbulence and the surface tension are the dominant factors. A primary atomization model has been developed to predict the mean droplet size far downstream by taking into account the effect of turbulent intensity at the injector exit. Two multidimensional spray codes, KIVA-2 and STAR-CD, originally developed for high-pressure diesel injection, are employed for the lower-pressure gasoline injection. A separate CFD analysis was performed on the complex internal flows of the compound nozzles to obtain the initial and boundary conditions for the spray codes. The TAB breakup model used in KIVA-2 adequately facilitates the atomization process in the gasoline injection.

1.
Beatrice, X. X., P. Belardini, C. Bertoli, M.C. Cameretti, and N. C. Cirillo, 1995, “Fuel Jet Models for Multidimensional Diesel Combustion Calculation: An Update,” SAE Paper No. 950086.
2.
Chen
J. L.
,
Chen
G.
, and
Wells
M.
,
1993
, “
Dynamic and Static Flow Analysis of a Gasoline Fuel Injector
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER
, Vol.
115
, pp.
750
755
.
3.
Chen, J. L., and G. Chen, 1995, “Slow Heating Process of a Heated Pintle-Type Gasoline Fuel Injector,” Progress in Fuel Systems to Meet New Fuel Economy and Emissions Standards, SAE SP-1084, pp. 25–34, SAE Paper No. 950068.
4.
Computational Dynamics, LTD, 1994, STAR-CD Version 2.2.1 Manuals, London, United Kingdom.
5.
Heywood, J. B., 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, Appendix C, McGraw-Hill, New York.
6.
Hinze, J. O., 1975, Turbulence, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 427 and 724–742.
7.
Kong
S. C.
, and
Reitz
R. D.
,
1993
, “
Multidimensional Modeling of Diesel Ignition and Combustion Using a Multistep Kinetics Model
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER
, Vol.
115
, pp.
781
789
.
8.
Lai, M. C., F. Q. Zhao, A. A. Amer, and T. H. Chue, 1994, “An Experimental and Analytical Investigation of the Spray Structure From Automotive Port Injectors,” SAE Paper No. 941873.
9.
Lefebvre, A. H., 1989, Atomization and Spray, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York, pp. 35 and 45–48.
10.
Liu, A. B., D. Mather, and R. D. Reitz, 1993, “Modeling the Effects of Drop Drag and Break-up on Fuel Sprays,” SAE Paper No. 930072.
11.
Nicholls, J., 1972, “Stream and Droplet Breakup by Shock Waves,” NASA SP-194, eds. D. T. Harrje and F. H. Reardon, eds., pp. 126–128.
12.
O’Rourke, P. J., and A. A. Amsden, 1987, “The TAB Method for Numerical Calculation of Spray Droplet Breakup,” SAE Paper No. 872089.
13.
Reitz, R. D., and R. Diwakar, 1986, “Effect of Drop Breakup on Fuel Sprays,” SAE Paper No. 860469.
14.
SAE, 1992, “Gasoline Fuel Injector,” 1992 SAE Handbook, Vol. 3, SAE J1832 NOV89, Society of Automobile Engineers, Warrendale, PA, pp. 24.246–24.262.
15.
Schlichting, H., 1979, Boundary Layer Theory, 7th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 599.
16.
Taylor, G. I., 1963, “The Shape and Acceleration of a Drop in a High Speed Air Stream,” The Scientific Papers of G. L Taylor, G. K. Batchelor, ed., Vol. III, University Press, Cambridge.
17.
Wu
P.-K.
,
Tseng
L.-K.
, and
Faeth
G. M.
,
1992
, “
Primary Breakup in Gas/Liquid Mixing Layers for Turbulent Liquids
,”
Atomization and Sprays
, Vol.
2
, pp.
295
317
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.