Current designs of regenerative gas turbines include high-effectiveness rotary regenerators. The regenerators make the gas turbines highly efficient during steady-state operation. During engine transients, however, engine efficiency can be low because high-effectiveness regenerators tend to have large cores with large thermal masses, and it can take a long time (minutes for example) for these regenerators to reach their steady-state effectivenesses. The following criterion determines the response time of regenerators:  
τss˜(mc)R/Cx,
where τxx (S) is the time period of transient operation; (mc)R (J/K) is the heat capacity of the core; and Cx (W/K) is the heat-capacity rate of the exhaust. This criterion has been verified through analysis and experimentation. The criterion enables the designer to estimate the fraction of an operating cycle during which the regenerator will have reduced effectiveness.
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