A methodology for the design of effervescent atomizers is described. The objective is to achieve sprays of minimum mean drop size for any stipulated values of liquid flow rate, air supply pressure, and air/liquid ratio. Application of the method leads to optimum values for all the key atomizer dimensions, including the number and size of the air injection holes, and the diameters of the mixing chamber and discharge orifice. It also enables optimum dimensions to be determined for a convergent-divergent nozzle should such a device be fitted to the nozzle exit to improve atomization performance. Examples are provided to demonstrate the application of the recommended design procedure and to illustrate the relative importance of various flow and geometric parameters in regard to their effects on atomization quality.

1.
Baker
O.
,
1954
, “
Simultaneous Flow of Oil and Gas
,”
Oil Gas Journal
, Vol.
53
, pp.
185
194
.
2.
Chin, J. S., and Lefebvre, A. H., 1992, “Studies on Internal-Mixing Air-Assist Atomizers,” unpublished Purdue report.
3.
Buckner, H. N., Sojka, P. E., and Lefebvre, A. H., 1989, “Aerated Atomization of High Viscosity Newtonian Liquids,” Proc. 3rd Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Irvine, CA, pp. 55–61.
4.
Lefebvre
A. H.
,
Wang
X. F.
, and
Martin
C. A.
,
1988
, “
Spray Characteristics of Aerated-Liquid Pressure Atomizers
,”
AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power
, Vol.
4
, No.
4
, pp.
293
298
.
5.
Lefebvre
A. H.
,
1988
, “
A Novel Method of Atomization With Potential Gas Turbine Applications
,”
Indian Defence Science Journal
, Vol.
38
, No.
4
, pp.
353
362
.
6.
Pilch
M.
, and
Erdman
C. A.
,
1987
, “
Use of Breakup Time Data and Velocity History Data to Predict the Maximum Size of Stable Fragments for Acceleration-Induced Breakup of a Liquid Drop
,”
International Journal of Multiphase Flow
, Vol.
13
, No.
6
, pp.
741
757
.
7.
Roesler
T. C.
, and
Lefebvre
A. H.
,
1989
, “
Studies on Aerated-Liquid Atomization
,”
International Journal of Turbo and Jet Engines
, Vol.
6
, Nos.
3 and 4
, pp.
221
230
.
8.
Wallis, G. B., 1969, One Dimensional Two Phase Flow, McGraw Hill, New York.
9.
Wang
X. F.
,
Chin
J. S.
, and
Lefebvre
A. H.
,
1989
, “
Influence of Gas Injector Geometry on Atomization Performance of Aerated-Liquid Nozzles
,”
International Journal of Turbo and Jet Engines
, Vol.
6
, No.
3 and 4
, pp.
271
280
.
10.
Whitlow, J. D., and Lefebvre, A. H., 1992, “Effervescent Atomizer Operation and Spray Characteristics,” to be published in Atomization and Sprays.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.