The turbocharging systems of highly boosted four-stroke diesel engines (BMEP 25 bar/363 psi) have to cope with two basic problems: lack of air and compressor surge at reduced engine speed. In the case of medium speed engines for ship propulsion and stationary applications, the following three control interventions have proved to be successful solutions: (1) waste gating air or exhaust gas at full load and speed, (2) using a compounded or independent exhaust gas driven power turbine that can be shut off at part load and speed, and (3) blowing air from the compressor outlet to the turbine inlet through a controlled bypass. The effect of these control interventions on engine performance is shown by examples and analyzed by means of characteristic quantities for the efficiency of the turbocharging system and the engine. The definitions and meanings of these quantities are explained in the first part of the paper.

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