The factors influencing premixed burning and the importance of premixed burning on the exhaust emissions from a small high-speed direct-injection diesel engine were investigated. The characteristics of premixed and diffusion burning were examined using a single-zone heat-release analysis. The mass of fuel burned in premixed combustion was found to be linearly related to the product of engine speed and ignition-delay time and to be essentially independent of the total amount of fuel injected. Accordingly, the premixed-burned fraction increased with increasing engine speed, with decreasing fuel-air ratio and with retarding injection timing. The hydrocarbon emissions did not correlate well with the premixed-burned fraction. In contrast, the oxides of nitrogen emissions were found to increase with decreasing premixed-burned fraction, indicating that diffusion burning, and not premixed burning, is the primary source of oxides of nitrogen emissions.

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