The paper discusses conventional modes of presenting axial and radial compressor operating envelopes and the conditions under which changes of factors such as the polytropic index n and the Reynolds number Re are negligible. It is shown on the basis of operating envelopes under what conditions compressors will surge (erratic flow conditions or stalling). In axial or radial compressor installations, surging can only be controlled by shifting the operating point in the operating envelope to the right away from the surge limit line. One method of doing this is to open the bypass valve to recycle part of the gas from the discharge piping to the suction piping. The paper describes in detail the control system required and discusses universal and simplified control systems. Modifications of control systems to fit, for example, wide suction pressure ranges are studied. The paper concludes with an investigation of methods of providing for high surge control reliability.

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