Abstract

This work aims to explore the T-channel momentum and heat transfer characteristics with the combined effect of Bingham plastic fluids (0.01 ? Bn ? 20) behaviour and geometrical variation in terms of branching angle (30o ? ? ? 90o). The problem has been solved over a wide range of Reynolds number (50 ? Re ? 300) and Prandtl number (10 ? Pr ? 50). For the momentum flow, qualitative and quantitative features are analyzed in terms of streamlines, structure of yielded/unyielded regions, shear rate contours, plug width and length variation, local pressure coefficient. These features have been represented in terms of isotherm patterns, temperature profile, Nusselt number, and its asymptotic value for heat transfer characteristics. The recirculating flows have been presented here in the vicinity of T-junction which promote mixing and heat transfer. Broadly, the size of this zone bears a positive dependence on Re and ?. However, fluid yield stress tends to suppress it. The critical Reynolds and Bingham numbers were found to be strong functions of the pertinent parameters like ?. The inclination angle exerts only a weak effect on the yielded/unyielded regions and on the recirculation length of main branch. Results show a strong relationship of the plug width and length with key parameters and branches. The Nusselt number exhibits a positive relationship with ?, Bn, and Re but for lower Pr in the T-junction vicinity for both branches. Such length indicates the required optimum channel length for thermal mixing.

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