The onset of the stable laminar secondary flow (hygrocysts) that arises when a partially filled container is rotated about a horizontal axis has been experimentally studied. Nearly 500 sets of data on thirteen fluid systems were obtained and analyzed using a multiple linear regression computer program. Numerous dimensionless correlation models were investigated, the best being a power law relationship between the Reynolds number, volume fraction, and Weber number. Anomalous behavior was observed in that as the volume fraction approached unity, the critical speed of the onset of the secondary flow approached zero, indicating non-rigid body motion (driven by the lateral body force) in completely filled horizontal rotating containers.

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