The upper bound of the average ram pressure, based on an assumed radial flow velocity field, is derived for plane strain extrusion. Ram pressures are calculated for a complete range of reduction ratios and die angles, considering a wide range of frictional conditions. Results are compared with upper-bound ram pressures obtained by considering velocity fields other than the radial flow field, and it is shown that for a considerable range of reduction ratios and die angles, the radial flow field yields better upper bounds for the average ram pressure.

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