An experimental investigation of hydrostatic extrusion through conical dies using commercially pure lead billets was carried out with two different hydrostatic pressure systems; namely, a ram-type extrusion system (with a forced predetermined extrusion rate), and an injection pump (constant-pressure) system. Pressure characteristics, flow patterns, and the cavity, piping, and dead-zone effects were investigated. Experimental pressure results for both types of pressure systems agreed well with analytical predictions. Furthermore, dead-zone, cavity, and piping effects were found to be dependent upon the semicone angle and the amount of area reduction of the billet.

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