A method is presented for the calculation of stresses and deflections in ring-shaped shells of circular cross section, subjected to axial forces. The solution is derived without the restriction imposed for toroidal shells by previous investigators, that the radius of curvature of the cross section is to be small in comparison with the mean radius of the torus. The range of applicability of the method is extended hereby to include the slightly arched convolutions used in the construction of welded bellows. By a rational reduction of the general solution approximate design formulas are obtained for the maximum stresses and deflections in bellows under axial forces and the calculated values are compared with experimental data.

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