Apparatus used in oil-refining service has been designed mostly from practical experience instead of experimental research, and the experience gained from operation over long periods gives notable results, among them being that certain alloys are resistant to corrosive conditions, and that if these alloys are used the so-called limiting creep stresses can be more than doubled over carbon steel. Other factors besides the strength of metals and corrosion resistance that must be considered are thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, resistance to abrasion, scaling, and oxidation. The search for an alloy steel that would resist the severe service in oil refining resulted in the development of chromium-tungsten steel. A series of tests are described in the development of properties required of a steel for high-temperature construction and service.

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