Small axial fans are used for cooling electronic equipment and are often installed in a casing with various slits. Direct aeroacoustic simulations and experiments were performed with different casing opening ratios to clarify the effects of the flow through the casing slits on the flow field and acoustic radiation around a small axial fan. Both the predicted and measured results show that aerodynamic performance deteriorates at and near the design flow rate and is higher at low flow rates by completely closing the casing slits compared with the fan in the casing with slits. The predicted flow field shows that the vortical structures in the tip vortices are spread by the suppression of flow through the slits at the design flow rate, leading to the intensification of turbulence in the blade wake. Moreover, the pressure fluctuations on the blade surface are intensified, which increases the aerodynamic sound pressure level. The suppression of the outflow of pressurized air through the downstream part of the slits enhances the aerodynamic performance at low flow rates. Also, the predicted surface streamline at the design flow rate shows that air flows along the blade tip for the fan with slits, whereas the flow toward the blade tip appears for the fan without slits. As a result, the pressure distributions on the blade and the torque exerted on the fan blade are affected by the opening ratio of slits.