In this paper, the hydraulic efficiency optimization calculation method of a ten-stage centrifugal pump is researched. According to the hydraulic loss model, a multi-objective optimization calculation method based on surrogate models is proposed. In order to study the highly nonlinear relationship between key design variables and centrifugal pump external characteristic values, this paper builds the quadratic response surface, the radial basis Gaussian response surface, and Kriging three surrogate models using computer fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation analysis. Two types of calculation models (hydraulic loss model and three surrogate models) combined NSGA-Π genetic algorithm are applied to optimize the key design variables and to find the optimal solution of each model. The accuracy and effectiveness of the efficiency optimization methods based on the two types of calculation models are compared and analyzed. The results show that the calculation method of hydraulic loss model based on the semitheoretical and semi-empirical formula is less time-consuming but inaccurate. In contrast, the optimization method based on surrogate models using CFD simulation is accurate. What's more, comparing the surrogate models, the results based on the complete quadratic response surface model which make the efficiency of the first stage centrifugal pump reach 77.26% are more accurate.