The bubble formation frequency from a single-orifice nozzle subjected to the effects of a crossflowing liquid was investigated using high-speed shadowgraphy, combined with image analysis and signal processing techniques. The effects of the nozzle dimensions, orientation within the conduit, liquid cross-flow velocity, and gas mass flow rate were evaluated. Water and air were the working fluids. Existing expressions in the literature were compared to the experimental values obtained. The expressions showed modest agreement with the experimental mean average frequency magnitude. It was found that increasing the gas injection diameter could decrease the bubbling frequency approximately 12% until reaching a certain value (0.52 mm). Further increasing the nozzle dimensions increase the frequency by around 20%. Bubbling frequency is more sensitive to the liquid velocity where changes up to 63% occurred when the velocity was raised from 3.1 to 4.3 m/s. Increasing gas mass flow rates decreased the gas jet breakup frequency in all cases. This phenomenon was primarily attributed to changes in the bubbling mode from discrete bubbling to pulsating and jetting modes. The nozzle orientation plays a role in modifying the bubbling frequency, having a higher magnitude when oriented against gravity.
Parametric Study of the Frequency of Bubble Formation at a Single Orifice With Liquid Cross-Flow
Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 4, 2018; final manuscript received January 28, 2019; published online March 18, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Jun Chen.
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Balzan, M. A., Hernandez, F., Lange, C. F., and Fleck, B. A. (March 18, 2019). "Parametric Study of the Frequency of Bubble Formation at a Single Orifice With Liquid Cross-Flow." ASME. J. Fluids Eng. September 2019; 141(9): 091102. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4042755
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