A turbulent transition model has been applied to fluid flow problems that can be laminar, turbulent, transitional, or any combination. The model is based on a single additional transport equation for turbulence intermittency. While the original model was developed for external flows, a slight modification in model constants has enabled it to be used for internal flows. It has been successfully applied to such flows for Reynolds numbers that ranged from 100 to 100,000 in circular tubes, parallel plate channels, and circular tubes with an abrupt change in diameters. The model is shown to predict fully developed friction factors for the entire range of Reynolds numbers as well as velocity profiles for both laminar and turbulent regimes.

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