Multistage centrifugal pumps are highly efficient and compact in structure. Pump efficiency can be improved by an effective understanding of hydraulic behavior and energy loss, however, the traditional hydraulic loss evaluation method does not readily reveal the specific locations of energy loss in the pump. In this study, a guide ring was imposed in multistage pumps, and an entropy production theory was applied to investigate irreversible energy loss of a multistage pump with and without guide ring. Detailed distributions of energy losses in the pumps were calculated to determine the respective entropy production rates (EPRs). The EPR values as calculated are in close accordance with actual hydraulic loss values in the pumps. EPR values were higher in the multistage pump with the guide ring than the pump without a guide ring under part-load flow conditions (0.2Qd). However, the vortex flow in the pump was weakened (or eliminated) by the guide ring as flow rate increased; this reduced energy loss in the chambers. Flow passing the chamber was stabilized by the guide ring, which decreased shock and vortex loss in the chamber and guide vane. Under both designed flow condition and overload conditions, the EPR values of the guide ring-equipped multistage pump were lower than those without the guide ring. Furthermore, minimum efficiency index (MEI) values were also calculated for the two chamber structures; it was found that overall efficiency of pump with guide ring is better than that without.

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