A contact angle control algorithm is developed and implemented in the multiphase interface tracking flow solver—phasta. The subgrid force model is introduced to control the evolving contact angle. The contact angle force is applied when the current contact angle deviates from the desired value (or range of values) and decreases to zero when it reaches the desired value. The single bubble departure simulation and the capillary flat plates simulation are performed for verification purpose. The numerical results are compared with the analytical solution with good agreement. The mesh resolution sensitivity analysis and parametric study are conducted for both simulations. Coupled with the other existing capabilities in phasta like evaporation and condensation algorithm, the contact angle control algorithm will allow us to investigate the boiling phenomenon in various conditions with lower cost (by utilizing localized mesh refinement for bubble growth region) compared to uniformly refined structured meshes and in engineering geometries.

References

References
1.
Basu
,
N.
,
Warrier
,
G. R.
, and
Dhir
,
V. K.
,
2005
, “
Wall Heat Flux Partitioning During Subcooled Flow Boiling—Part 1: Model Development
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
127
(
2
), pp.
131
140
.
2.
Fritz
,
W.
,
1935
, “
Maximum Volume of Vapor Bubbles
,”
Phys. Z
,
36
(
11
), pp.
379
384
.
3.
Zuber
,
N.
,
1959
, “
Hydrodynamic Aspects of Boiling Heat Transfer (Thesis)
,” Ramo-Wooldridge Corp.,/University of California, Los Angeles, CA, Report No. AECU-4439.
4.
Young
,
T.
,
1832
, “
An Essay on the Cohesion of Fluids
,”
Proc. R. Soc. Lond.
,
1
, pp.
171
172
.
5.
Wenzel
,
R.
,
1936
, “
Surface Roughness and Contact Angle
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem.
,
28
, pp.
988
994
.
6.
Cassie
,
A.
,
1948
, “
Contact Angles
,”
Discuss. Faraday Soc.
,
3
, pp.
11
16
.
7.
Lam
,
C.
,
Wu
,
R.
, and
Li
,
D.
,
2002
, “
Study of the Advancing and Receding Contact Angles: Liquid Sorption as a Cause of Contact Angle Hysteresis
,”
Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.
,
96
(
1–3
), pp.
169
191
.
8.
Ramanujapu
,
N.
, and
Dhir
,
V.
,
1999
, “
Dynamics of Contact Angle During Growth and Detachment of a Vapor Bubble at a Single Nucleation Site
,” University of California, Los Angeles, CA, No.
20026815.
https://www.osti.gov/biblio/20026815
9.
Sobolev
,
V.
,
Churaev
,
N.
, and
Velarde
,
M.
,
2000
, “
Surface Tension and Dynamic Contact Angle of Water in Thin Quartz Capillaries
,”
J. Colloid Interface Sci.
,
222
(
1
), pp.
51
54
.
10.
Kandlikar
,
S. G.
,
Kuan
,
W. K.
, and
Mukherjee
,
A.
,
2005
, “
Experimental Study of Heat Transfer in an Evaporating Meniscus on a Moving Heated Surface
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
127
(
3
), pp.
244
252
.
11.
Fukai
,
J.
,
Shiiba
,
Y.
, and
Yamamoto
,
T.
,
1995
, “
Wetting Effects on the Spreading of a Liquid Droplet Colliding With a Flat Surface: Experiment and Modeling
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
7
(
2
), pp.
236
247
.
12.
Bussmann
,
M.
,
Mostaghimi
,
J.
, and
Chandra
,
S.
,
1999
, “
On a Three-Dimensional Volume Tracking Model of Droplet Impact
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
11
(
6
), pp.
1406
1417
.
13.
Abarajith
,
H.
, and
Dhir
,
V.
,
2002
, “
A Numerical Study of the Effect of Contact Angle on the Dynamics of a Single Bubble During Pool Boiling
,”
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2002-33876.
14.
Son
,
G.
, and
Hur
,
N.
,
2005
, “
A Level Set Formulation for Incompressible Two-Phase Flows on Nonorthogonal Grids
,”
Numer. Heat Transfer, Part B: Fundam.
,
48
(
3
), pp.
303
316
.
15.
Mukherjee
,
A.
, and
Kandlikar
,
S. G.
,
2007
, “
Numerical Study of Single Bubbles With Dynamic Contact Angle During Nucleate Pool Boiling
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
50
(
1–2
), pp.
127
138
.
16.
Sato
,
Y.
, and
Ničeno
,
B.
,
2012
, “
A New Contact Line Treatment for a Conservative Level Set Method
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
231
(
10
), pp.
3887
3895
.
17.
Li
,
M.
, and
Bolotnov
,
I. A.
,
2015
, “
Interface Tracking Simulation of Boiling Phenomena—Single Bubble Verification
,”
ANS Annual Meeting 2015 Transactions
, Washington, DC, Nov. 8–12, pp.
1515
1517
.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319777906_Interface_Tracking_Simulation_of_Boiling_Phenomena_-Single_Bubble_Verification
18.
Whiting
,
C. H.
, and
Jansen
,
K. E.
,
2001
, “
A Stabilized Finite Element Method for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations Using a Hierarchical Basis
,”
Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids
,
35
(
1
), pp.
93
116
.
19.
Fang
,
J.
,
Cambareri
,
J. J.
, and
Brown
,
C. S.
,
2018
, “
Direct Numerical Simulation of Reactor Two-Phase Flows Enabled by High-Performance Computing
,”
Nucl. Eng. Des.
,
330
, pp.
409
419
.
20.
Fang
,
J.
,
Rasquin
,
M.
, and
Bolotnov
,
I. A.
,
2017
, “
Interface Tracking Simulations of Bubbly Flows in PWR Relevant Geometries
,”
Nucl. Eng. Des.
,
312
, pp.
205
213
.
21.
Wilcox
,
D. C.
,
1998
,
Turbulence Modeling for CFD
,
DCW Industries
,
La Cañada, CA
.
22.
Brackbill
,
J. U.
,
Kothe
,
D. B.
, and
Zemach
,
C.
,
1992
, “
A Continuum Method for Modeling Surface Tension
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
100
(
2
), pp.
335
354
.
23.
Sussman
,
M.
,
Almgren
,
A. S.
, and
Bell
,
J. B.
,
1999
, “
An Adaptive Level Set Approach for Incompressible Two-Phase Flows
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
148
(
1
), pp.
81
124
.
24.
Sussman
,
M.
, and
Fatemi
,
E.
,
1999
, “
An Efficient, Interface-Preserving Level Set Re-Distancing Algorithm and Its Application to Interfacial Incompressible Fluid Flow
,”
SIAM J. Sci. Comput.
,
20
(
4
), pp.
1165
1191
.
25.
Sussman
,
M.
,
Fatemi
,
E.
, and
Smereka
,
P.
,
1998
, “
An Improved Level Set Method for Incompressible Two-Phase Flows
,”
Comput. Fluids
,
27
(
5
), pp.
663
680
.
26.
Sussman
,
M.
, and
Smereka
,
P.
,
1997
, “
Axisymmetric Free Boundary Problems
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
341
, pp.
269
294
.
27.
Sethian
,
A. J.
,
1999
,
Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods
,
Cambridge University Press
,
Cambridge, UK
.
28.
Mishra
,
A.
, and
Bolotnov
,
A. I.
,
2013
, “
Contact Angle Control Algorithm Development for Level-Set Interface Tracking Method
,”
Transactions of 2013 ANS Annual Meeting
, Atlanta, GA, June 16–20.
29.
Celik
,
I. B.
,
Ghia
,
U.
, and
Roache
,
P. J.
,
2008
, “
Procedure for Estimation and Reporting of Uncertainty Due to Discretization in CFD Applications
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
130
(
7
), p.
078001
.
30.
Laplace
,
P. S.
,
Bowditch
,
N.
, and
Bowditch
,
N. I.
,
1829
,
Mécanique Céleste
, Meccanica.
31.
Young
,
T.
,
1855
,
Miscellaneous Works of the Late Thomas Young
, Vol. 2.
You do not currently have access to this content.