Transient pressure peak values and decay rates associated with water hammer surges in fluid lines are investigated using an analytical method that has been formulated, in a previous publication, to simulate pressure transients in turbulent flow. The method agrees quite well with method of characteristics (MOC) simulations of unsteady friction models and has been verified with experimental data available for Reynolds numbers out to 15,800. The method is based on the formulation of ordinary differential equations from the frequency response of a pressure transfer function using an inverse frequency algorithm. The model is formulated by dividing the line into n-sections to distribute the turbulence resistance along the line at higher Reynolds numbers. In this paper, it will be demonstrated that convergence of the analytical solution is achieved with as few as 5–10 line sections for Reynolds numbers up to 200,000. The method not only provides for the use of conventional time domain solution algorithms for ordinary differential equations but also provides empirical equations for estimating peak surge pressures and transient decay rates as defined by eigenvalues. For typical sets of line and fluid properties, the trend of the damping ratio of the first or dominate mode of the pressure transients transfer function is found to be an approximate linear function of a dimensionless parameter that is a function of the Reynolds number. In addition, a reasonably accurate dimensionless trend formula for estimates of the normalized peak pressures is formulated and presented.
Water Hammer Peak Pressures and Decay Rates of Transients in Smooth Lines With Turbulent Flow
Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 16, 2016; final manuscript received January 3, 2018; published online February 23, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Elias Balaras.
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Hullender, D. A. (February 23, 2018). "Water Hammer Peak Pressures and Decay Rates of Transients in Smooth Lines With Turbulent Flow." ASME. J. Fluids Eng. June 2018; 140(6): 061204. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4039120
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