The pressure fluctuations in both the rotating runner and the other fixed components in a model Francis turbine under various loads were experimentally measured by means of onboard measuring equipment in the runner and data storage device on the shaft in this study. Large pressure fluctuations were observed under both small guide vane opening and large guide vane opening conditions. Flow separation at the blade suction surface led to large pressure fluctuations for small guide vane openings, the unsteady flow around the inlet on the blade pressure side led to large pressure fluctuations for large openings. The pressure fluctuations correlation between the runner and other components of the turbine, mainly the draft tube, was analyzed in detail for both small guide vane opening (12 deg) and large guide vane opening (30 deg). The results show that the pressure fluctuations in the runner space increased by the superposition of draft tube vortex rope pressure fluctuations and runner inter blade vortices pressure fluctuations, resulting in much larger pressure fluctuations in the runner space than in other components.

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