A numerical-based (Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS)) investigation into the role of span and wing angle in determining the performance of an inverted wing in ground effect located forward of a wheel is described, using a generic simplified wheel and NACA 4412 geometry. The complex interactions between the wing and wheel flow structures are investigated to explain either increases or decreases for the downforce and drag produced by the wing and wheel when compared to the equivalent body in isolation. Geometries that allowed the strongest primary wing vortex to pass along the inner face of the wheel resulted in the most significant reductions in lift and drag for the wheel. As a result, the wing span and angle combination that would produce the most downforce, or least drag, in the presence of the wheel does not coincide with what would be assumed if the two bodies were considered only in isolation demonstrating the significance of optimizing these two bodies in unison.

References

References
1.
Dominy
,
R. G.
,
1992
, “
Aerodynamics of Grand Prix Car
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.
,
206
(
44
), pp.
267
274
.
2.
Agathangelou
,
B.
, and
Gascoyne
,
M.
,
1998
, “
Aerodynamic Considerations of a Formula One Racing Car
,”
SAE
Paper No. 980399.
3.
Barber
,
T. J.
,
Doig
,
G.
,
Beves
,
C.
,
Watson
,
I.
, and
Diasinos
,
S.
,
2012
, “
The Synergistic Integration of CFD and EFD for Ground Effect Aerodynamics Studies
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part G
,
226
(
6
), pp.
602
619
.
4.
Correia
,
J.
,
Roberts
,
L. S.
,
Finnis
,
M. V.
, and
Knowles
,
K.
,
2014
, “
Scale Effects on a Single-Element Inverted Wing in Ground Effect
,”
Aeronaut. J.
,
118
(
1205
), pp.
797
809
.
5.
Diasinos
,
S.
,
Barber
,
T. J.
, and
Doig
,
G.
,
2013
, “
Influence of Wing Span on the Aerodynamics of Wings in Ground Effect
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part G
,
227
(
3
), pp.
564
568
.
6.
Doig
,
G.
,
Barber
,
T. J.
,
Leonardi
,
E.
, and
Neely
,
A. J.
,
2007
, “
The Onset of Compressibility Effects for an Inverted Aerofoil in Ground Effect
,”
Aeronaut. J.
,
111
(
1126
), pp.
797
806
.
7.
Doig
,
G.
,
Barber
,
T.
, and
Neely
,
A.
,
2011
, “
The Influence of Compressibility on the Aerodynamics of an Inverted Wing in Ground Effect
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
133
(
6
), p. 061102.
8.
Doig
,
G.
, and
Barber
,
T. J.
,
2011
, “
Considerations for Numerical Modeling of Inverted Wings in Ground Effect
,”
AIAA J.
,
49
(
10
), pp.
2330
2333
.
9.
Keogh
,
J.
,
Doig
,
G.
,
Barber
,
T. J.
, and
Diasinos
,
S.
,
2014
, “
The Aerodynamics of a Cornering Inverted Wing in Ground Effect
,”
Appl. Mech. Mater.
,
553
, pp.
205
210
.
10.
Ranzenbach
,
R.
, and
Barlow
,
J.
,
1997
, “
Multielement Aerofoil in Ground Effect, Experimental and Computational Study
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 97-2238.
11.
Zerihan
,
J.
, and
Zhang
,
X.
,
2000
, “
Aerodynamics of a Single Element Wing in Ground Effect
,”
J. Aircr.
,
37
(
6
), pp.
1058
1064
.
12.
Zerihan
,
J.
, and
Zhang
,
X.
,
2001
, “
Aerodynamics of Gurney Flaps on a Wing in Ground Effect
,”
AIAA J.
,
39
(
5
), pp.
772
780
.
13.
Axerio-Cilies
,
J.
,
Issakhanian
,
E.
,
Jimenez
,
J.
, and
Iaccarino
,
G.
,
2012
, “
An Aerodynamic Investigation of an Isolated Stationary Formula 1 Wheel Assembly
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
134
(
2
), p.
021101
.
14.
Issakhanian
,
E.
,
Elkins
,
C. J.
,
Lo
,
K. P.
, and
Eaton
,
J. K.
,
2010
, “
An Experimental Study of the Flow Around a Formula One Racing Car Tire
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
132
(
7
), p.
071103
.
15.
McManus
,
J.
, and
Zhang
,
X.
,
2006
, “
A Computational Study of the Flow Around an Isolated Wheel in Contact With the Ground
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
128
(
3
), pp.
520
530
.
16.
Saddington
,
A. J.
,
Knowles
,
R. D.
, and
Knowles
,
K.
,
2007
, “
Laser Doppler Anemometry Measurements in the Near-Wake of an Isolated Formula One Wheel
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
42
(
5
), pp.
671
681
.
17.
Katz
,
J.
,
2006
, “
Aerodynamics of Race Cars
,”
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
,
38
(
1
), pp.
27
63
.
18.
Zhang
,
X.
,
Toet
,
W.
, and
Zerihan
,
J.
,
2006
, “
Ground Effect Aerodynamics of Racing Cars
,”
ASME Appl. Mech. Rev.
,
59
(
1
), pp.
33
49
.
19.
Katz
,
J.
,
2002
, “
Aerodynamic Effects of Indy Car Components
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2002-01-3311.
20.
Diasinos
,
S.
, and
Gatto
,
A.
,
2008
, “
Experimental Investigation Into Wing Span and Angle-of-Attack Effects on Sub-Scale Race Car Wing/Wheel Interaction Aerodynamics
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
45
(
3
), pp.
537
546
.
21.
Diasinos
,
S.
,
2009
, “
The Aerodynamic Interaction of a Rotating Wheel and a Downforce Producing Wing in Ground Effect
,”
Ph.D. thesis
, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
22.
Knowles
,
R. D.
,
Saddington
,
A. J.
, and
Knowles
,
K.
,
2013
, “
On the Near Wake of a Formula One Front Wheel
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D
,
227
(11), pp. 1491–1502.
23.
Van Den Berg
,
M. A.
, and
Zhang
,
X.
,
2009
, “
The Aerodynamic Interaction Between an Inverted Wing and a Rotating Wheel
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
131
(
10
), p.
101104
.
24.
Zhang
,
X.
, and
Zerihan
,
J.
,
2003
, “
Off-Surface Aerodynamic Measurements of a Wing in Ground Effect
,”
J. Aircr.
,
40
(
4
), pp.
716
725
.
25.
Zhang
,
X.
, and
Zerihan
,
J.
,
2004
, “
Edge Vortices of a Double Element Wing in Ground Effect
,”
J. Aircr.
,
41
(
5
), pp.
1127
1137
.
26.
Diasinos
,
S.
,
Doig
,
G.
, and
Barber
,
T. J.
,
2014
, “
On the Interaction of a Racing Car Front Wing and Exposed Wheel
,”
Aeronaut. J.
,
118
(
1210
), pp.
1385
1407
.
27.
Qu
,
Q.
,
Wang
,
W.
,
Liu
,
P.
, and
Agarwal
,
R. K.
,
2015
, “
Airfoil Aerodynamics in Ground Effect for Wide Range of Angles of Attack
,”
AIAA J.
,
53
(4), pp.
1
14
.
28.
Keogh
,
J.
,
Doig
,
G.
, and
Diasinos
,
S.
,
2014
, “
Flow Compressibility Effects Around an Open-Wheel Racing Car
,”
Aeronaut. J.
,
118
(
1210
), pp.
1409
1431
.
29.
Keogh
,
J.
,
Doig
,
G.
, and
Diasinos
,
S.
,
2012
, “
The Influence of Compressibility Effects in Correlation Issues for Aerodynamic Development of Racing Cars
,”
18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference (AFMC), Australasian Fluid Mechanics Society
(
AFMS
), Launceston, Australia, Dec. 3–7, Paper No. 061102.
30.
Doig
,
G.
,
2014
, “
Transonic and Supersonic Ground Effect Aerodynamics
,”
Prog. Aerosp. Sci.
,
69
, pp.
1
28
.
31.
Fackrell
,
J. E.
,
1974
, “
The Aerodynamics of an Isolated Wheel Rotating in Contact With the Ground
,” Ph.D. thesis, University of London, London.
32.
Cruickshank
,
M.
, and
Doig
,
G.
,
2014
, “
Application of Kriging to Motorsport Aerodynamic Analysis
,”
Appl. Mech. Mater.
,
553
, pp.
217
2122
.
33.
Diasinos
,
S.
,
Barber
,
T. J.
, and
Doig
,
G.
,
2015
, “
The Effects of Simplifications on Isolated Wheel Aerodynamics
,”
J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn.
,
146
, pp.
90
101
.
34.
AIAA
,
1998
, “
Guide for the Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations
,” The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, Standard No. AIAA G-077-1998.
You do not currently have access to this content.