Wind loads on structures and the wind environment around buildings are based on tests in boundary layer wind tunnels with corresponding scale parameters. The lower part of the troposphere boundary layer was simulated inside a small wind tunnel located at the Wind Engineering Centre of the Université de Moncton. The correct scale ratios of the boundary layer thickness combined with the roughness height are two of the most important scales to match. For small wind tunnels, roughness parameters related to the model boundary layer can be difficult to measure since scale ratios for wind load studies are expected to be in the range of 400–1000. Oil-film interferometry was used to determine the roughness parameters (shear stress, friction velocity, and roughness height) of the forced turbulent boundary layer inside the wind tunnel. In this work, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Guide to Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements was used to evaluate the standard uncertainty of the roughness parameters on the bottom wall of the wind tunnel. The standard uncertainty of the roughness parameters depends strongly on the oil viscosity and on the accurate measurement of the fringe spacing. Results show that the standard uncertainty of the shear stress and friction velocity determined by the interferometry technique can be less than 5% when the oil viscosity and the fringe spacing can be accurately measured with a standard uncertainty lower than 4% and 1%, respectively.

References

References
1.
Davenport
,
A. G.
,
1963
, “
The Relationship of Wind Structure to Wind Loading
,”
Proceedings of a Symposium in Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures
, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK.
2.
Davenport
,
A. G.
,
1967
, “
The Dependence of Wind Loads on Meteorological Parameters
,” Proceedings of a Symposium in Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, University of Toronto, Ottawa, Canada, Vol. 1, pp. 20–82.
3.
Davenport
,
A.
,
Grimmond
,
S.
,
Oke
,
T.
, and
Wieringa
,
J.
,
2000
, “
The Revised Davenport Roughness Classification for Cities and Sheltered Country
,”
Third Symposium on the Urbain Environment
, pp.
7
8
.
4.
Garratt
,
J.
,
1992
,
The Atmospheric Boundary Layer
,
Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science, Cambridge University Press
,
Cambridge, UK
.
5.
Jensen
,
M.
,
1958
,
The Model Law for Phenomena in the Natural Wind
, Ingenioren (International Edition) ed., Vol.
2
,
Danish Technical Press
,
Copenhagen, Denmark
.
6.
Armitt
,
J.
, and
Counihan
,
J.
,
1968
, “
The Simulation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in a Wind Tunnel
,”
Atmospheric Environment
,
2
(
1
), pp.
49
71
.
7.
Counihan
,
J.
,
1969
, “
An Improved Method of Simulating an Atmospheric Boundary Layer in a Wind Tunnel
,”
Atmospheric Environment
,
3
(
2
), pp.
197
214
.
8.
Counihan
,
J.
,
1973
, “
Simulation of an Adiabatic Urban Boundary Layer in a Wind Tunnel
,”
Atmospheric Environment
,
7
7
), pp.
673
689
.
9.
Cermak
,
J.
, and
Arya
,
S.
,
1970
, “
Problems of Atmospheric Shear Flow and Their Laboratory Simulation
,”
Boundary-Layer Meteorology
,
1
(
1
), pp.
40
60
.
10.
Standen
,
N.
,
1972
, “
A Spire Array for Generating Thick Turbulent Shear Layers for Natural Wind Simulation in Wind Tunnels
,” National Aeronautical Establishment, Ottawa, Canada, Technical Report No. LA-94.
11.
Cook
,
N.
,
1978
, “
Wind-Tunnel Simulation of the Adiabatic Atmospheric Boundary Layer by Roughness, Barrier and Mixing-Device Methods
,”
J. Wind Eng. Industrial Aerodynamics
,
3
(
2–3
), pp.
157
176
.
12.
Wang
,
Z.
,
Plate
,
E.
,
Rau
,
M.
, and
Keiser
,
R.
,
1996
, “
Scale Effects in Wind Tunnel Modeling
,”
J. Wind Eng. Industrial Aerodynamics
,
61
(
2–3
), pp.
113
130
.
13.
Sutton
,
O.
,
1953
,
Micrometeorology
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
14.
Fang
,
C.
,
1992
, “
Aerodynamic Roughness Length: Correlation With Roughness Elements
,”
J. Wind Eng. Industrial Aerodynamics
,
41
(
1
), pp.
449
460
.
15.
NBC-2010
,
2010
,
National Building Code of Canada
2010
,
NRC/IRC
.
16.
Iyengar
,
A.
, and
Farell
,
C.
,
2001
, “
Experimental Issues in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Simulations: Roughness Length and Integral Length Scale Determination
,”
J. Wind Eng. Industrial Aerodynamics
,
89
(
11–12
), pp.
1059
1080
.
17.
Tutu
,
N.
, and
Chevray
,
R.
,
1975
, “
Cross-Wire Anemometry in High Intensity Turbulence
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
71
(
4
), pp.
785
800
.
18.
Perry
,
A.
,
Lim
,
K.
, and
Henbest
,
S.
,
1987
, “
An Experimental Study of Turbulence Structure in Smooth- and Rough-Wall Turbulent Boundary Layer
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
177
, pp.
437
466
.
19.
Acharya
,
M.
, and
Escudier
,
M.
,
1985
, “
Measurements of the Wall Shear Stress in Boundary Layers Flows
,” Turbulent Shear Flows 4; Selected Papers From the Fourth International Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows,
Springer
,
Berlin, Heidelberg
.
20.
Acharya
,
M.
, and
Escudier
,
M.
,
1987
, “
Turbulent Flow Over Mesh Roughness
,” Turbulent Shear Flows 5; Selected Papers From the Fifth International Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows,
Springer
,
Berlin, Heidelberg
.
21.
Petersen
,
R.
,
1997
, “
A Wind Tunnel Evaluation of Methods for Estimating Surface Surface Roughness Length at Industrial Facilities
,”
Atmospheric Environment
,
31
(
1
), pp.
45
57
.
22.
Squire
,
L.
,
1961
, “
The Motion of a Thin Oil Sheet Under the Steady Boundary Layer on a Body
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
11
(
2
), pp.
161
179
.
23.
Tanner
,
L.
, and
Blows
,
L.
,
1976
, “
A Study of the Motion of Oil Films on Surfaces in Air Flow, With Application to the Measurement of Skin Friction
,”
J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum.
,
9
(
3
), pp.
194
202
.
24.
Tanner
,
L.
,
1977
, “
A Skin-Friction Meter, Using the Viscosity Balance Principle, Suitable for Use With Flat or Curved Metal Surfaces
,”
J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum.
,
10
(
3
), pp.
278
284
.
25.
Monson
,
D.
,
Mateer
,
G.
, and
Manter
,
F.
,
1993
, “
Boundary-Layer Transition and Global Skin Friction Measurements With an Oil-Fringe Imaging Technique
,”
Aerotech’93
, Costa Mesa, CA, SAE Technical Paper No. 932550.
26.
Seto
,
J.
, and
Hornung
,
H.
,
1991
, “
Internally Mounted Thin-Liquid-Film Skin-Friction Meter–Comparison With Floating Element Method With and Without Pressure Gradient
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 91-0060.
27.
Seto
,
J.
, and
Hornung
,
H.
,
1993
, “
Two-Dimensional Skin-Friction Measurement Utilizing a Compact Internally-Mounted Thin-Liquid-Film Skin-Friction Meter
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 93-0180.
28.
Naughton
,
J.
, and
Sheplak
,
M.
,
2002
, “
Modern Developments in Shear-Stress Measurement
,”
Prog. Aerospace Sci.
,
38
(
6–7
), pp.
515
570
.
29.
Zilliac
,
G.
,
1996
, “
Further Developments of the Fringe-Imaging Skin Friction Technique
,” NASA Technical Report No. 110425.
30.
Brown
,
J.
, and
Naughton
,
J.
,
1999
, “
The Thin Oil Film Equation
,”
NASA, Technical Report No. NASA/TM-1999-208767
.
31.
Naughton
,
J.
,
Robinson
,
J.
, and
Durgesh
,
V.
,
2003
, “
Oil-Film Interferometry Measurement of Skin Friction—Analysis Summary and Description of Matlab Program
,”
20th International Congress on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities
,
ICIASF’03
, Aug. 25–29, pp.
169
178
.
32.
Naughton
,
J.
,
2005
, “
High-Quality Skin Friction Measurements in 2-D Flows Using Oil Film Interferometry
,”
21st International Congress on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities
,
ICIASF'05
, Aug. 29–Sept. 1, pp.
166
175
.
33.
Irwin
,
H.
,
1981
, “
The Design of Spires for Wind Simulation
,”
J. Wind Eng. Industrial Aerodynamics
,
7
(
3
), pp.
361
366
.
34.
Gartshore
,
L.
, and
De Croos
,
K.
,
1977
, “
Roughness Element Geometry Required for Wind Tunnel Simulations of the Atmospheric Wind
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
99
(
3
), pp.
480
485
.
35.
Born
,
M.
, and
Wolf
,
M.
,
1999
,
Principles of Optics
,
7th ed.
,
Cambridge University Press
,
Cambridge, UK
.
36.
Driver
,
D. M.
,
2003
, “
Application of Oil-Film Interferometry Skin-Friction Measurement to Large Wind Tunnels
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
34
(
6
), pp.
717
725
.
37.
Ng
,
H. C. H.
,
Marusic
,
I.
,
Monty
,
J. P.
,
Hutchins
,
N.
, and
Chong
,
M.
,
2007
, “
Oil Film Interferometry in High Reynolds Number Turbulent Boundary Layers
,”
16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference
, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, pp.
807
814
.
38.
Pailhas
,
G.
,
Barricau
,
P.
, and
Touvet
,
Y.
,
2009
, “
Friction Measurement in Zero and Adverse Pressure Gradient Boundary Layer Using Oil Droplet Interferometric Method
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
47
(
2
), pp.
195
207
.
39.
Murphy
,
J.
, and
Westphal
,
R.
,
1986
, “
The Laser Interferometer Skin-Friction Meter: A Numerical and Experimental Study
,”
J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum.
,
19
(
9
), pp.
774
751
.
40.
ISO-JCGM100
,
2008
,
Evaluation of Measurement Data-Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement.
JCGM
.
41.
Corning
,
D.
,
2000
, “
Product Information—50cs, 100cs, 200cs, 350cs, 500cs, 1000cs
,” Ref. No. 25-991B-01.
42.
Khodier
,
S. A.
,
2002
, “
Refractive Index of Standar Oils as a Function of Wavelength and Temperature
,”
Optics Laser Technol.
,
34
(
2
), pp.
125
128
.
You do not currently have access to this content.