Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the dynamics of sand jets passing through two immiscible fluids. Different oil layer thicknesses, nozzle diameters, and sand masses were employed. Evolution of oily sand jets with time was investigated using image processing and boundary visualization techniques. Different shapes of the frontal head and trailing wave section were observed and cloud formation was classified into different categories based on Reynolds number, normalized oil layer thickness, and evolution time. It was found that the effect of Reynolds number on evolution of oily sand jets was more significant than the other parameters. Width and frontal velocity of oily sand jets were measured at different times. It was observed that oily sand jets became unstable after a distance of ten times larger than the nozzle diameter. Instability of oily sand jets caused intense spreading with a spreading rate of 0.4. The thin layer of oil encapsulated sand cluster was ruptured due to excess shear stress and caused bursting of the frontal head into a cloud of sand particles. Three different bursting mechanisms were observed and a correlation was found between the densimetric Froude number and the normalized bursting time. Data mining and boundary visualization techniques were used to model oily sand jets. Model trees were developed to classify and predict the growth of oily sand jets at different conditions. Modeling results indicated that the Model tree can predict the growth of sand jets with an uncertainty of ±8.2%, ±6.8%, and ±8.7% for width, velocity, and distance, respectively.
Experimental Investigation of Sand Jets Passing Through Immiscible Fluids
Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 13, 2016; final manuscript received December 26, 2016; published online March 20, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Francine Battaglia.
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Mohammadidinani, N., Azimi, A. H., and Elyasi, S. (March 20, 2017). "Experimental Investigation of Sand Jets Passing Through Immiscible Fluids." ASME. J. Fluids Eng. May 2017; 139(5): 051303. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4035762
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