A variety of skin-friction drag reduction (FDR) methods for turbulent boundary layer (TBL) flows are reviewed. Both passive and active methods of drag reduction are discussed, along with a review of the fundamental processes responsible for friction drag and FDR. Particular emphasis is given to methods that are applicable to external hydrodynamic flows where additives are diluted by boundary layer entrainment. The methods reviewed include those based on engineered surfaces (riblets, large eddy breakup devices (LEBUs), and superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS)), those based on additives (polymer injection and gas injection), and those based on morphological alterations in the boundary layer flow (air layers and partial cavity formation). A common theme for all methods is their disruption of one or more of the underlying physical processes responsible for the production of skin-friction drag in a TBL. Opportunities and challenges for practical implementation of FDR techniques are also discussed.

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