A computational method has been developed to couple the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) body forces induced by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuation with unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) model or large eddy simulation (LES) for incompressible flows. The EHD body force model is based on solving the electrostatic equations for electric potential and net charge density. The boundary condition for net charge density on the dielectric surface is obtained from a space–time lumped-element (STLE) circuit model or an empirical model. The DBD–URANS/LES coupled solver has been implemented using a multiple-domain approach and a multiple subcycle technique. The DBD plasma-induced flow in a quiescent environment is used to validate the coupled solver, evaluate different EHD body force models, and compare the performance of the actuator driven by voltage with various waveforms and amplitudes.

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