This paper describes the change in the transition mechanism of a separated boundary layer formed from the semicircular leading-edge of a constant thickness airfoil as the free-stream turbulence (fst) increases. Experiments are carried out in a low-speed wind tunnel for three levels of fst (Tu = 0.65%, 4.6%, and 7.7%) at two Reynolds numbers (Re) 25,000 and 55,000 (based on the leading-edge diameter). Measurements of velocity and surface pressure along with flow field visualizations are carried out using a planar particle image velocimetry (PIV). The flow undergoes separation in the vicinity of leading-edge and reattaches in the downstream forming a separation bubble. The shear layer is laminar up to 20% of separation length, and then, the perturbations are amplified in the second-half attributing to breakdown and reattachment. The bubble length is highly susceptible to change in Tu. At low fst, the primary mode of instability of the shear layer is Kelvin–Helmholtz (K-H), although the local viscous effect may not be neglected. At high fst, the mechanism of shear layer rollup is bypassed with transient growth of perturbations along with evidence of spot formation. The predominant shedding frequency when normalized with respect to the momentum thickness at separation is almost constant and shows a good agreement with the previous studies. After reattachment, the flow takes longer length to approach a canonical boundary layer.
Effects of Free-Stream Turbulence on Transition of a Separated Boundary Layer Over the Leading-Edge of a Constant Thickness Airfoil
Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 23, 2014; final manuscript received June 29, 2015; published online September 3, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Feng Liu.
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Samson, A., and Sarkar, S. (September 3, 2015). "Effects of Free-Stream Turbulence on Transition of a Separated Boundary Layer Over the Leading-Edge of a Constant Thickness Airfoil." ASME. J. Fluids Eng. February 2016; 138(2): 021202. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4031249
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