Measurements have been carried out for determining the viscosity of several nanofluids, in which different nanoparticles were dispersed in a base fluid of 60% propylene glycol (PG) and 40% water by mass. The nanoparticles were aluminum oxide (Al2O3), copper oxide (CuO), silicon dioxide (SiO2), titanium oxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) with different average particle diameters. Measurements were conducted for particle volume concentrations of up to 6% and over a temperature range of 243 K–363 K. All the nanofluids exhibited a Bingham plastic behavior at lower temperatures of 243 K–273 K and a Newtonian behavior in the temperature range of 273 K–363 K. Comparisons of the experimental data with several existing models show that they do not exhibit good agreement. Therefore, a new model has been developed for the viscosity of nanofluids as a function of temperature, particle volume concentration, particle diameter, the properties of nanoparticles, and those of the base fluid. Measurements were also conducted for single walled, bamboolike structured, and hollow structured multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) dispersed in a base fluid of 20% PG and 80% water by mass. Measurements of these carbon nanotubes (CNT) nanofluids were conducted for a particle volume concentration of 0.229% and over a temperature range of 273 K–363 K, which exhibited a non-Newtonian behavior. The effect of ultrasonication time on the viscosity of CNT nanofluids was investigated. From the experimental data of CNT nanofluids, a new correlation was developed which relates the viscosity to temperature and the Péclet number.
An Experimental Determination of the Viscosity of Propylene Glycol/Water Based Nanofluids and Development of New Correlations
Department of Petroleum Engineering,
Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 25, 2014; final manuscript received February 17, 2015; published online March 27, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Ali Beskok.
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Vajjha, R. S., Das, D. K., and Chukwu, G. A. (August 1, 2015). "An Experimental Determination of the Viscosity of Propylene Glycol/Water Based Nanofluids and Development of New Correlations." ASME. J. Fluids Eng. August 2015; 137(8): 081201. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4029928
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