The unsteady phenomena of a low specific speed pump–turbine operating in pump mode were characterized by dynamic pressure measurements and high-speed flow visualization of injected air bubbles. Analyses were carried out on the pressure signals both in frequency and time–frequency domains and by bispectral protocol. The results obtained by high-speed camera were used to reveal the flow pattern in the diffuser and return vanes channels The unsteady structure identified in the return vane channel appeared both at full and part load condition. Furthermore, a rotating stall structure was found and characterized in the diffuser when the pump operated at part load. The characteristics of these two unsteady structures are described in the paper.

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