Factors that influence the nonuniform gas–liquid distribution in refrigerant distributors in air conditioners were studied. Gas–liquid flows in two-pass and multipass distributors were numerically simulated with a particle/grid hybrid method; droplets and liquid films were mainly simulated using a particle method, and gas flows were simulated using a grid method. Complex behaviors of multiscale gas–liquid interfaces in the multipass distributor were simulated because droplets that were smaller than the grid size could be simulated without numerical diffusion through the gas–liquid interfaces. The effect of the connecting angle of the bend pipe was studied in the two-pass distributor, whereas the effect of the tube's position relative to the distributor inflow and the effect of gravity were investigated in the multipass distributor. The model was validated against multiple experimental data taken from an at-scale physical model. We found that the direction of gravity plays a role in ensuring a uniform distribution of liquid in the multipass distributor for ensuring a uniform distribution.

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