The Tesla valve is a passive-type check valve used for flow control in micro- or minichannel systems for a variety of applications. Although the design and effectiveness of a singular Tesla valve is somewhat well understood, the effects of using multiple, identically shaped Tesla valves in series—forming a multistaged Tesla valve (MSTV)—have not been well documented in the open literature. Therefore, using high-performance computing (HPC) and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the effectiveness of an MSTV using Tesla valves with preoptimized designs was quantified in terms of diodicity for laminar flow conditions. The number of Tesla valves/stages (up to 20), valve-to-valve distance (up to 3.375 hydraulic diameters), and Reynolds number (up to 200) was varied to determine their effect on MSTV diodicity. Results clearly indicate that the MSTV provides for a significantly higher diodicity than a single Tesla valve and that this difference increases with Reynolds number. Minimizing the distance between adjacent Tesla valves can significantly increase the MSTV diodicity, however, for very low Reynolds number (Re < 50), the MSTV diodicity is almost independent of valve-to-valve distance and number of valves used. In general, more Tesla valves are required to maximize the MSTV diodicity as the Reynolds number increases. Using data-fitting procedures, a correlation for predicting the MSTV diodicity was developed and shown to be in a power-law form. It is further concluded that 3D CFD more accurately simulates the flow within the Tesla valve over a wider range of Reynolds numbers than 2D simulations that are more commonly reported in the literature. This is supported by demonstrating secondary flow patterns in the Tesla valve outlet that become stronger as Reynolds number increases. Plots of the pressure and velocity fields in various MSTVs are provided to fully document the complex physics of the flow field.

References

References
1.
Forster
,
F. K.
,
Bardell
,
R. L.
,
Afromowitz
,
M. A.
,
Sharma
,
N. R.
, and
Blanchard
,
A.
,
1995
, “
Design, Fabrication and Testing of Fixed-Valve Micro-Pumps
,”
Proc. ASME Fluid Eng. Div.
,
234
, pp.
39
44
.
2.
Stemme
,
E.
, and
Stemme
,
G.
,
1993
, “
A Valveless Diffuser Nozzle-Based Fluid Pump
,”
Sensors Actuators A Phys.
,
39
, pp.
159
167
.10.1016/0924-4247(93)80213-Z
3.
Gerlach
,
T.
,
1998
, “
Microdiffusers as Dynamic Passive Valves for Micropump Applications
,”
Sensors Actuators A Phys.
,
69
, pp.
181
191
.10.1016/S0924-4247(98)00056-9
4.
Tasi
,
C. H.
,
Lin
,
C. H.
,
Fu
,
L. M.
, and
Chen
,
H. C.
,
2012
, “
High-Performance Microfluidic Rectifier Based on Sudden Expansion Channel With Embedded Block Structure
,”
Biomicrofluidics
6
, pp.
24108
241089
.10.1063/1.4704504
5.
Fadl
,
A.
,
Zhang
,
Z.
,
Geller
,
S.
,
Tolke
,
J.
,
Krafczyk
,
M.
, and
Meyer
,
D.
,
2009
, “
The Effect of the Microfluidic Diodicity on the Efficiency of Valve-Less Rectification Micropumps Using Lattice Boltzmann Method
,”
Microsyst. Tech.
,
15
, pp.
1379
1387
.10.1007/s00542-009-0901-7
6.
Tesla
,
N.
,
1920
, –“
Valvular Conduit
,” U.S. Patent NO. 1,329,559.
7.
Bardell
,
R. L.
,
2000
1, “
The Diodicity Mechanism of Tesla-Type No-Moving-Parts Valves
,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
8.
Paul
,
F. W.
,
1969
, “
Fluid Mechanics of the Momentum Flueric Diode
,”
IFAC Symposium on Fluidics, Royal Aeronautical Society
, Paper A1, pp.
1
15
.
9.
Truong
,
T. Q.
, and
Nguyen
,
N. T.
,
2003
, “
Simulation and Optimization of Tesla Valves
,”
2003 Nanotech - Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show
, San Francisco, CA, pp.
178
181
.
10.
Zhang
,
S.
,
Winoto
,
S. H.
, and
Low
,
H. T.
,
2007
, “
Performance simulations of Tesla Microfluidic Valves
,”
Proceedings of the International Conference on Integration and Commercialization of Micro and Nanosystems
, Sanya, Hainan, China, Paper No. MNC2007-21107 A., pp.
15
19
.
11.
Gamboa
,
A. R.
,
Morris
,
C. J.
, and
Forster
,
F. K.
,
2005
, “
Improvements in Fixed-Valve Micropump Performance Through Shape Optimization of Valves
,”
ASME J. Fluid Eng.
,
127
, pp.
339
346
.10.1115/1.1891151
12.
Thompson
,
S. M.
,
Ma
,
H. B.
, and
Wilson
,
C. A.
,
2011
, “
Investigation of a Flat-Plate Oscillating Heat Pipe With Tesla-Type Check Valves
,”
Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
,
35
, pp.
1265
1273
.10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2011.04.014
13.
Reed
,
J. L.
,
1993
, –“
Fluidic Rectifier
,” U.S. Patent No. 5,265,636.
14.
Afromowitz
,
M. A.
,
Bardell
,
R. L.
,
Blanchard
,
A. P.
,
Forster
,
F. K.
, and
Sharma
,
N. R.
,
1999
, –“
Micropumps With Fixed Valves
,” U.S. Patent No. 5,876,187.
15.
Mohammadzadeh
,
K.
,
Kolahdouz
,
M. E.
,
Shirani
,
E.
, and
Shafii
,
M. B.
,
2012
, “
Numerical Investigation on the Effect of the Size and Number of Stages on the Tesla Microvalve Efficiency
,”
J. Mech.
,
29
, pp.
527
534
.10.1017/jmech.2013.29
16.
Patankar
,
S. V.
,
1980
,
Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow
.
Hemisphere
,
Washington
, DC.
17.
Rhie
,
C. M.
, and
Chow
,
W. L.
,
1983
, “
Numerical Study of the Turbulent Flow Past an Airfoil With Trailing Edge Separation
,”
AIAA J.
,
21
, pp.
1525
1532
.10.2514/3.8284
18.
Barth
,
T. J.
, and
Jesperson
,
D.
,
1989
, “
The Design and Application of Upwind Schemes on Unstructured Meshes
,”
Proceedings of the 27th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting
, Reno, NV, Technical Report AIAA-89-0366.
You do not currently have access to this content.