Wing configuration is a parameter that affects the performance of wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft. In this study, the aerodynamic characteristics of a new compound wing were investigated during ground effect. The compound wing was divided into three parts with a rectangular wing in the middle and two reverse taper wings with anhedral angle at the sides. The sectional profile of the wing model is NACA6409. The experiments on the compound wing and the rectangular wing were carried to examine different ground clearances, angles of attack, and Reynolds numbers. The aerodynamic coefficients of the compound wing were compared with those of the rectangular wing, which had an acceptable increase in its lift coefficient at small ground clearances, and its drag coefficient decreased compared to rectangular wing at a wide range of ground clearances, angles of attack, and Reynolds numbers. Furthermore, the lift to drag ratio of the compound wing improved considerably at small ground clearances. However, this improvement decreased at higher ground clearance. The drag polar of the compound wing showed the increment of lift coefficient versus drag coefficient was higher especially at small ground clearances. The Reynolds number had a gradual effect on lift and drag coefficients and also lift to drag of both wings. Generally, the nose down pitching moment of the compound wing was found smaller, but it was greater at high angle of attack and Reynolds number for all ground clearance. The center of pressure was closer to the leading edge of the wing in contrast to the rectangular wing. However, the center of pressure of the compound wing was later to the leading edge at high ground clearance, angle of attack, and Reynolds number.

References

References
1.
Davis
,
J. E.
, and
Harris
G. L.
,
1973
, “
Nonplanar Wings in Nonplanar Ground Effect
,”
J. Aircr.
,
10
(
5
), pp.
308
312
.
2.
Barrows
,
T. M.
,
1973
, “
The Ram Air Cushion-Advanced Fluid Suspension for Tracked Levitated Vehicles
,” ASME Paper No. 73-ICT 14.
3.
Widnall
,
S. E.
, and
Barrows
,
T. M.
,
1970
, “
An Analytic Solution for Two and Three Dimensional Wings in Ground Effect
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
41
(
4
), pp.
769
792
.
4.
Rubbert
,
P. E.
, and
Saaris
,
G. R.
,
1972
, “
Review and Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Lifting Potential Flow Analysis Method for Arbitrary Configurations
,” AIAA Paper No. 72-188.
5.
Johnson
,
F. T.
, and
Rubbert
,
P. E.
,
1975
, “
Advanced Panel-Type Influence Coefficient Methods Applied to Subsonic Flow
,” AIAA Paper No. 75-50.
6.
Ollila
,
R. G.
,
1980
, “
Historical Review of WIG Vehicles
,”
J. Hydrodyn.
,
14
(
3
), pp.
65
76
.
7.
Ando
,
S.
,
1990
, “
Critical Review of Design Philosophies for Recent Transport WIG Effect Vehicles
,”
Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aeronaut. Space Sci.
,
33
(
99
), pp.
28
40
.
8.
Rozhdestvensky
,
K. V.
,
2006
, “
Wing-In-Ground Effect Vehicles
,”
J. Aerosp. Sci.
,
42
, pp.
211
283
.
9.
Raymond
,
A.
,
1921
, “
Ground Influence on Airfoils
,” NAC Technical Note No. 67.
10.
Reid
,
E.
,
1927
, “
A Full Scale Investigation of Ground Effect
,” NACA Technical Report No. 265.
11.
Rozhdestvensky
,
K. V.
,
2000
,
Aerodynamics of a Lifting System in Extreme Ground Effect
,
1st ed.
,
Springer-Verlag
,
Berlin
.
12.
Wieselsberger
,
C.
,
1922
, “
Wing Resistance Near the Ground
,” NACA Technical Memorandum No. 77.
13.
Recant
,
I. G.
,
1939
, “
Wing-Tunnel Investigation of Ground Effect on Wing With Flaps
,” NACA Technical Note No. 705.
14.
Chawla
,
M. D.
,
Edwards
,
L. C.
, and
Franke
,
M. E.
,
1990
, “
Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Wing-In-Ground Effect
,”
J. Aircr.
,
27
(
4
), pp.
289
293
.
15.
Ahmed
,
N.
, and
Goonaratne
,
J.
,
2002
, “
Lift Augmentation of a Low-Aspect-Ratio Thick Wing in Ground Effect
,”
J. Aircr.
,
39
(
2
), pp.
381
384
.
16.
Ahmed
,
M. R.
,
2004
, “
Flow Over Thick Airfoils in Ground Effect—An Investigation on the Influence of Camber
,”
Proceedings of the 24th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences
, Aug. 29–Sept. 3, Yokohama, Japan, pp.
1
10
.
17.
Ahmed
,
M. R.
,
Takasaki
,
T.
, and
Kohama
,
Y.
,
2007
, “
Aerodynamic of NACA4412 Airfoil in Ground Effect
,”
AIAA J.
,
45
(
1
), pp.
37
47
.
18.
Fink
,
M. P.
, and
Lastinger
,
J. L.
,
1961
, “
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Low-Aspect-Ratio Wings in Close Proximity to the Ground
,” NASA Technical Note No. D 926.
19.
Carter
,
A. W.
,
1961
, “
Effect of Ground Proximity on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Aspect-Ratio 1 Airfoils With and Without Endplate
,” NASA Technical Note No. D 970.
20.
Abramowski
,
T.
,
2007
, “
Numerical Investigation of Airfoil in Ground Proximity
,”
J. Theor. Appl. Mech.
,
45
(
2
), pp.
425
436
.
21.
Schlichting
,
H.
,
1968
,
Boundary Layer Theory
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New-York
.
22.
Li
,
Y.
,
Yang
,
W.
, and
Yang
,
Z.
,
2010
, “
Numerical Study on Wing in Ground Effect of Canard Configuration
,”
Aeronaut. Comput. Tech.
,
40
(
4
), pp.
27
30
.
23.
Li
,
Y.
,
Yang
,
W.
, and
Yang
,
Z.
,
2010
, “
Numerical Study on Static Longitudinal Stability of Canard Wig Craft
,”
Flight Dyn.
,
28
(
1
), pp.
9
12
.
24.
Lee
,
J.
,
Han
,
C. S.
, and
Bae
,
C. H.
,
2010
, “
Influence of Wing Configurations on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Wings in Ground Effect
,”
J. Aircr.
,
47
(
3
), pp.
1030
1040
.
25.
Yang
,
Z.
,
Yang
,
W.
, and
Li
,
Y.
,
2009
, “
Analysis of Two Configurations for a Commercial WIG Craft Based on CFD
,”
Proceedings of the 27th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference
, June 22–25, San Antonio, TX, pp.
1
9
.
26.
Ying
,
C.
,
Yang
,
W.
, and
Yang
,
Z.
,
2010
, “
Numerical Simulation on Reverse Forward Swept Wing in Ground Effect
,”
Comput. Aided Eng.
,
19
(
3
), pp.
35
39
.
27.
Yang
,
W.
,
Yang
,
Z.
, and
Ying
,
C.
,
2010
, “
Effects of Design Parameters on Longitudinal Static Stability for WIG Craft
,”
Int. J. Aerodyn.
,
1
(
1
), pp.
97
113
.
28.
Jamei
,
S.
,
Maimun
,
A.
,
Mansor
,
S.
,
Azwadi
,
N.
, and
Priyanto
,
A.
,
2012
, “
Numerical Investigation on Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Compound Wing in Ground Effect
,”
J. Aircr.
,
49
(
5
), pp.
1297
1305
.
You do not currently have access to this content.