A numerical study was carried out to investigate the performance of a two-layer model for predicting turbulent gas-particle flows in rough pipes. An Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid formulation was used to model both the gas and solid phases for turbulent gas-particle flow in a vertical tube. The stresses developed in the particle phase were calculated using the kinetic theory of granular flows while the gas-phase stresses were described using an eddy viscosity model. The two-fluid model typically uses a two-equation k-ɛ model to describe the gas phase turbulence, which includes the suppression and enhancement effects due to the presence of particles. For comparison, a two-layer model was also implemented since it has the capability to include surface roughness. The current study examines the predictions of the two-layer model for both clear gas and gas-solid flows in comparison to the results of a conventional low Reynolds number model. The paper specifically documents the effects of surface roughness on the turbulence kinetic energy and granular temperature for gas-particle flow in both smooth and rough pipes.

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