A momentum jet injected into a confined container breaks up to “diffusive turbulence” after traveling a critical distance. It has been argued that an adverse pressure gradient developing within the container, acting against the jet momentum flux, is responsible for this break up (Risso and Fabre, 1997,“Diffusive Turbulence in a Confined Jet Experiment,” J. Fluid Mech., 337, pp. 233–261; Voropayev et al., 2011, “Evolution of a Confined Turbulent Jet in a Long Cylindrical Cavity: Homogeneous Fluids,” Phys. Fluids, 23, 115106). Experimental evidence for this adverse pressure gradient is presented in this paper, supplemented by a control-volume analysis to explain the results. The rise of pressure from the jet-injection level to a location beyond the jet break up xb is shown to be proportional to the jet momentum flux. The overall (integrated) sidewall friction on a control volume is negligible, compared to the increase of pressure, if the flow control volume extends beyond xb. For smaller lengths of the control volume, the side wall drag is not negligible compared to the pressure rise. The Reynolds number similarity was evident for jet Reynolds numbers above 6000. This work was motivated by its applications to degassing of crude oil stored in the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserves, which are slender salt caverns. To improve its quality, periodically oil is cycled through a degassing plant and injected back to the cavern as a jet, and the degassing time is critically dependent on jet dynamics.

References

References
1.
Voropayev
,
S. I.
,
Sanchez
,
X.
,
Nath
,
C.
,
Webb
,
S.
, and
Fernando
,
H. J. S.
,
2011
, “
Evolution of a Confined Turbulent Jet in a Long Cylindrical Cavity: Homogeneous Fluids
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
23
,
115106
.10.1063/1.3662442
2.
Ehgartner
,
B.
,
Webb
,
S.
, and
Lord
,
D.
,
2005
, “
Future Degas Behaviour at Big Hill
,” Sandia National Laboratories Technical Memo, Albuquerque, NM.
3.
Risso
,
F.
, and
Fabre
,
J.
,
1997
, “
Diffusive Turbulence in a Confined Jet Experiment
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
337
,
pp 233
261
.10.1017/S0022112097004965
4.
Risso
,
F.
,
1999
, “
Experimental Investigation of the Motion of a Bubble in a Gradient of Turbulence
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
11
,
pp 3567
3569
.10.1063/1.870214
5.
Villermaux
,
E.
, and
Hopfinger
,
E. J.
,
1994
, “
Self-Sustained Oscillations of a Confined Jet: A Case Study for the Non-Linear Delayed Saturation Model
,”
Phys. D
,
72
, pp.
230
243
.10.1016/0167-2789(94)90212-7
6.
Khoo
,
B. C.
,
Chew
,
T. C.
,
Heng
,
P. S.
, and
Kong
,
H. K.
,
1992
, “
Turbulence Characterization of a Confined Jet Using PIV
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
13
,
pp 350
356
.10.1007/BF00209510
7.
Liu
,
H.
,
Winoto
,
S. H.
, and
Shah
,
D. A.
,
1997
, “
Velocity Measurements Within Confined Turbulent Jets: Application to Cardiovalvular Regurgitation
,”
Ann. Biomed. Eng.
,
25
, pp.
939
948
.10.1007/BF02648120
8.
Mataouia
,
A.
, and
Schiestelb
,
R.
,
2009
, “
Unsteady Phenomena of an Oscillating Turbulent Jet Flow Inside a Cavity: Effect of Aspect Ratio
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
,
25
, pp.
60
79
.10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2008.03.010
9.
Billant
,
P.
,
Chomaz
,
J. M.
, and
Huerre
,
P.
,
1998
, “
Experimental Study of Vortex Breakdown in Swirling Jets
,”
J. Fluid. Mech.
,
376
, pp.
183
219
.10.1017/S0022112098002870
10.
Mourtazin
,
D.
, and
Cohen
,
J.
,
2007
, “
The Effect of Buoyancy on Vortex Breakdown in a Swirling Jet
,”
J. Fluid. Mech.
,
571
, pp.
177
189
.10.1017/S0022112006002862
You do not currently have access to this content.