Numerical investigations have been performed to investigate the dynamics of a single liquid droplet formation in another immiscible cross-flow liquid for different values of cross-flow velocities and temperature difference between the two phases. The transient growth of the droplet and detachment time have been calculated by solving Navier-Stokes equation for two-phase flow using coupled level-set and volume of fluid method. The effect of temperature on surface tension has been incorporated in numerical simulation by modeling the surface tension as a linear function of temperature. The effects of cross-flow velocity and temperature in the evolution and detachment of the droplet have been investigated from the balance of different forces acting on the system. With the increase in cross-flow velocity, the diameter of the droplet decreases and droplet detachment time increases. While with the increase in cross-flow temperature, both the diameter and detachment time decreases.

References

References
1.
Stone
,
H. A.
, 1994, “
Dynamics of Droplet Deformation and Breakup in Viscous Fluids
,”
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
,
26
, pp.
65
102
.
2.
Nisisako
,
T.
,
Torii
,
T.
, and
Higuchi
,
T.
, 2002, “
Droplet Formation in a Microchannel Network
,”
Lab Chip
,
2
, pp.
24
26
.
3.
Xu
,
J. H.
,
Li
,
S. W.
,
Tan
,
J.
,
Wang
,
Y. J.
, and
Luo
,
G. S.
, 2006, “
Preparation of Highly Monodisperse Droplet in a T-junction Microfluidic Device
,”
AIChE J.
,
52
, pp.
3005
3010
.
4.
Garstecki
,
P.
,
Fuerstman
,
M. J.
,
Stone
,
H. A.
, and
Whitesides
,
G. M.
, 2006, “
Formation of Droplets and Bubbles in a Microfluidic T-Junction—Scaling and Mechanism of Break-Up
,”
Lab Chip
,
6
, pp.
437
446
.
5.
Menech
,
M. D.
,
Garstecki
,
P.
,
Jousse
,
F.
, and
Stone
,
H. A.
, 2008, “
Transition From Squeezing to Dripping in a Microfluidic T-Shaped Junction
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
595
, pp.
141
161
.
6.
Sang
,
L.
,
Hong
,
Y.
, and
Wang
,
F.
, 2009, “
Investigation of Viscosity Effect on Droplet Formation in T-Shaped Microchannels by Numerical and Analytical Methods
,”
Microfluid. Nanofluid.
,
6
, pp.
621
635
.
7.
Schröder
,
V.
,
Behrend
,
O.
, and
Schubert
,
H.
, 1998, “
Effect of Dynamic Interfacial Tension on the Emulsification Process Using Microporous, Ceramic Membranes
,”
J. Colloid Interface Sci.
,
202
, pp.
334
340
.
8.
Nguyen
,
N. T.
,
Ting
,
T. H.
,
Yap
,
Y. F.
,
Wong
,
T. N.
, and
Chai
,
J. C. K.
, 2007, “
Thermally Mediated Droplet Formation in Microchannels
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
91
, p.
084102
.
9.
Murshed
,
S. M. S.
,
Tan
,
S. H.
,
Nguyen
,
N. T.
,
Wong
,
T. N.
, and
Yoba
,
L.
, 2009, “
Microdroplet Formation of Water and Nanofluids in Heat-Induced Microfluidic T-Junction
,”
Microfluid. Nanofluid.
,
6
, pp.
253
259
.
10.
Ho
,
P. C.
,
Yap
,
Y. F.
,
Nguyen
,
N. T.
, and
Chai
,
J. C. K.
, 2011, “
Thermally Mediated Droplet Formation at a Microfluidic T-Junction
,”
Micro Nanosystems
,
3
, pp.
65
75
.
11.
van Dijke
,
K.
,
Kobayashi
,
I.
,
Schroën
,
K.
,
Uemura
,
K.
,
Nakajima
,
M.
, and
Boom
,
R.
, 2010, “
Effect of Viscosities of Dispersed and Continuous Phases in Microchannel Oil-in-Water Emulsification
,”
Microfluid. Nanofluid.
,
9
, pp.
77
85
.
12.
Vazquez
,
G.
,
Alvarez
,
E.
, and
Navaza
,
J. M.
, 1995, “
Surface Tension of Alcohol + Water From 20 to 50 °C
,”
J. Chem. Eng. Data
,
40
, pp.
611
614
.
13.
Brackbill
,
J. U.
,
Kith
,
D. B.
, and
Zemach
,
C.
, 1992, “
A Continuum Method for Modeling Surface Tension
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
100
, pp.
335
354
.
14.
Puckett
,
E. G.
,
Almgren
,
A. S.
,
Bell
,
J. B.
,
Marcus
,
D. L.
, and
Rider
,
W. J.
, 1997, “
A High-Order Projection Method for Tracking Fluid Interface in Variable Density Incompressible Flows
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
130
, pp.
269
282
.
15.
Rudman
,
M.
, 1997, “
Volume-Tracking Methods for Interfacial Flow Calculations
,”
Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids
,
24
, pp.
671
691
.
16.
Nahraa
,
H. K.
, and
Kamotani
,
Y.
, 2003, “
Prediction of Bubble Diameter at Detachment From a Wall Orifice in Liquid Cross-flow Under Reduced and Normal Gravity Conditions
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
58
, pp.
55
69
.
You do not currently have access to this content.