The flowfield around a 60% scale rotating Formula 1 tire in contact with the ground in a closed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 500,000 was examined computationally and experimentally. The goal of this study was to assess the accuracy of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) equations and confirm the existence of large scale vortical and flow recirculating features. A replica deformable F1 tire model that includes four tire treads and all brake components was used to determine the sensitivity of the wake to cross flow within the tire hub as well as the flow blockage caused by the brake assembly. Several turbulence closures were employed and the one that matched closest to the experimental PIV data was the Reynolds stress model. The variability between the six turbulence closures is shown by comparing velocity profiles, pressure distributions, and vortex eccentricity. The sensitivity of the wake to four different hub geometries, contact patch boundary conditions, multiple reference frame (MRF) rotor and spoke treatment, and time step size are also discussed.

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