An experimental investigation was performed to study the flow structure of a submerged water jet impinging normally on a smooth and flat surface using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The jet issued from a 112 diameter long pipe which ensured fully developed turbulent flow conditions at the outlet. A semiconfined setting provided properly characterized flow boundary conditions. The Reynolds number based on jet mean exit velocity was Re = 15,895. The pipe-to-plate separation was varied between 1 and 8 pipe diameters. The current study focused on characterizing the flow structure close to the pipe outlet, in the impingement and wall-jet regions. Statistically averaged mean and RMS velocities are reported for a 6D wide and 1D high, near-plate, rectangular region.

References

References
1.
Martin
,
H
, 1977, “
Heat and Mass Transfer Between Impinging Gas Jets and Solid Surfaces
,”
Adv. Heat Transfer
,
13
, pp.
1
60
.
2.
Downs
,
S. J.
, and
James
,
E. H.
, 1987, “
Jet Impingement Heat Transfer—A Literature Survey
,” ASME Paper No. 87-H-35, ASME, NY.
3.
Jambunathan
,
K.
,
Lai
,
E.
,
Moss
,
M. A.
, and
Button
,
B. L.
, 1992, “
A Review of Heat Transfer Data for Single Circular Jet Impingement
,”
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
,
13
, pp.
106
115
.
4.
Viskanta
,
R.
, 1993, “
Heat Transfer to Impinging Isothermal Gas and Flame Jets
,”
Experimental Terminology of Fluid Science
6
, pp.
111
34
.
5.
Polat
,
S.
, 1993, “
Heat and Mass Transfer in Impingement Drying
,”
Drying Technology
,
11
, pp.
1147
1176
.
6.
Webb
,
B.
, and
Ma
,
C.-F.
, 1995, “
Single-Phase Liquid Jet Impingement Heat Transfer
,”
Adv. in Heat Transfer
,
26
, pp.
105
134
.
7.
Garimella
,
S. V.
, 1999, “
Heat Transfer and Flow Fields in Confined Jet Impingement
,”
Annual Reviews of Heat Transfer
,
11
, pp.
413
494
.
8.
Cooper
,
D.
,
Jackson
,
D. C.
,
Launder
,
B. E.
, and
Liao
,
G. X.
, 1993, “
Impinging Jet Studies for Turbulence Model Assessment—I. Flow-Field Experiments
,”
Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer
,
36
, pp.
2675
2684
.
9.
Craft
,
T. J.
,
Graham
,
L. J. W.
, and
Launder
,
B. E.
, 1993, “
Impinging Jet Studies for Turbulence Model Assessment—II. An Examination of the Performance of Four Turbulence Models
,”
Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer
,
36
, pp.
2685
2697
.
10.
Dianat
,
M.
,
Fairweather
,
M.
, and
Jones
,
W. P.
, 1996, “
Predictions of Axisymmetric and Two-Dimensional Impinging Turbulent Jets
,”
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
,
17
, pp.
530
538
.
11.
Behnia
,
M.
,
Parneix
,
S.
, and
Durbin
,
P. A.
, 1998, “
Prediction of Heat Transfer in an Axisymmetric Turbulent Jet Impinging on a Flat Plate
,”
Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer
,
41
, pp.
1845
1855
.
12.
Park
,
T. S.
, and
Sung
,
H. J.
, 2001, “
Development of a Near-Wall Turbulence Model and Application to Jet Impingement Heat Transfer
,”
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
,
22
, pp.
10
18
.
13.
Hadizabdic
,
M.
, and
Hanjalic
,
K.
, 2008, “
Vortical Structures and Heat Transfer in a Round Impinging Jet
,”
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
,
596
, pp.
221
260
.
14.
Garimella
,
S. V.
, and
Rice
,
R. A.
, 1995, “
Confined and Submerged Liquid Jet Impingement Heat Transfer
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
117
, pp.
871
877
.
15.
Garimella
,
S. V.
, and
Nenaydykh
,
B.
, 1996, “
Nozzle-Geometry Effects in Liquid Jet Impingement Heat Transfer
,”
Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer
,
39
, pp.
2915
2923
.
16.
Fitzgerald
,
J.
, and
Garimella
,
S. V.
1997, “
A Study of the Flow Field of a Confined and Submerged Impinging Jet
,”
Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer
,
41
, pp.
1025
1034
.
17.
Nishino
,
K.
,
Samada
,
M.
,
Kasuya
,
K.
, and
Torii
,
K.
, 1996, “
Turbulence Statistics in the Stagnation Region of an Axisymmetric Impinging Jet Flow
,”
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
,
17
, pp.
193
201
.
18.
Geers
,
L.
,
Tummers
,
M.
, and
Hanjalic
,
K.
, 2004, “
Experimental Investigation of Impinging Jet Arrays
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
36
, pp.
946
958
.
19.
Geers
,
L.
,
Hanjalic
,
K.
, and
Tummers
,
M.
, 2006, “
Wall Imprint of Turbulent Structures and Heat Transfer in Multiple Impinging Jet Arrays
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
546
, pp.
255
284
.
20.
Ashfort-Frost
,
S.
, and
Jambunathan
,
K.
, 1996, “
Effect of Nozzle Geometry and Semi-Confinement on the Potential Core of a Turbulent Axisymmetric Free Jet
,”
Int. Comm. Heat and Mass Transfer
,
23
, pp.
155
162
.
21.
Ashfort-Frost
,
S.
,
Jambunathan
,
K.
, and
Whitney
,
C. F.
, 1997, “
Velocity and Turbulence Characteristics of Semiconfined Orthogonally Impinging Slot Jet
,”
Experiments in Thermal Fluid Science
,
14
, pp.
60
67
.
22.
Behnia
,
M.
,
Parneix
,
S.
,
Shabany
,
Y.
, and
Durbin
,
P. A.
, 1999, “
Numerical Study of Turbulent Heat Transfer in Confined and Unconfined Impinging Jets
,”
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
,
20
, pp.
1
9
.
23.
Phares
,
D. J.
,
Smedley
,
G. T.
, and
Flagan
,
R. C.
, 2000, “
The Wall Shear Stress Produced by the Normal Impingement of a Jet on a Flat Surface
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
418
, pp.
351
375
.
24.
Fairweather
,
M.
, and
Hargrave
2002, “
Experimental Investigation of an Axisymmetric, Impinging Turbulent Jet. 1. Velocity Field
,”
Experiments in Fluids
,
33
, pp.
464
471
.
25.
Geers
,
L.
,
Tummers
,
M.
, and
Hanjalic
,
K.
, 2005, “
PIV-Based Identification of Coherent Structures in Normally Impinging Multiple Jets
,”
Physics in Fluids
,
17
, pp.
1
13
.
26.
Beydar
,
E.
, and
Ozmen
,
Y.
, 2006, “
An Experimental Investigation on Flow Structures of Confined an Unconfined Impinging Air Jets
,”
Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer
,
42
, pp.
338
346
.
27.
Westergaard
,
C.H.
,
Madsen
,
B.B.
,
Marassi
,
M.
, and
Tomasini
,
E.P.
, 2003, “
Accuracy of PIV Signals in Theory and Practice
,”
5th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry
,
Busan, Korea
, September 22-24, Paper 3301.
28.
Wereley
,
S. T.
, and
Meinhart
,
C. D.
, 2005, “
Micron-Resolution Particle Image Velocimetry
,”
Microscale Diagnostic Techniques
,
K.
,
Breuer
, Ed., Chap. 2, pp.
51
110
,
Springer-Verlag
,
New York
.
29.
Munson
,
B. R.
,
Young
,
D. F.
, and
Okiishi
,
T. H.
, 2002,
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics
4th ed.
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
30.
Durst
,
F.
,
Kikura
,
H.
,
Lekakis
,
I.
,
Jovanovíc
,
J.
, and
Ye
,
Q.
, 1996, “
Wall Shear Stress Determination From Near-Wall Mean Velocity Data in Turbulent Pipe and Channel Flows
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
20
, pp.
417
428
.
You do not currently have access to this content.