Flow visualization and characterization of multiphase flows have been the quest of many fluid mechanicians. The process is fairly straight forward only when there is good optical access (i.e., the vessel is not opaque or there are appropriate viewing ports) and the flow is transparent, implying a very low volume fraction of the dispersed phase; however, when optical access is not good or the fluid is opaque, alternative methods must be developed. Several different noninvasive visualization tools have been developed to provide high-quality qualitative and quantitative data of various multiphase flow characteristics, and overviews of these methods have appeared in the literature. X-ray imaging is one family of noninvasive measurement techniques used extensively for product testing and evaluation of static objects with complex structures. X-rays can also be used to visualize and characterize multiphase flows. This paper provides a review of the current status of X-ray flow visualization and details various X-ray flow visualization methods that can provide qualitative and quantitative information about the characteristics of complex multiphase flows.

References

References
1.
Dudukovic
,
M. P.
, 2007, “
Relevance Of Multiphase Reaction Engineering To Modern Technological Challenges
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
46
(
25
), pp.
8674
8686.
2.
Dudukovic
,
M. P.
,
Larachi
,
F.
, and
Mills
,
P. L.
, 1999, “
Multiphase Reactors - Revisited
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
54
, pp.
1975
1995.
3.
Reese
,
J.
,
Silva
,
E. M.
,
Tang
,
S.-T.
, and
Fan
,
L.-S.
, 1999,
“Industrial Applications of Three-Phase Fluidization Systems,”
Fluidization Solids Handling and Processing - Industrial Applications
,
W.-C.
Yang
, ed.
Noyes Publications
,
Westwood, NJ
, pp.
582
682
.
4.
Sundaresan
,
S.
, 2000, “
Modeling the Hydrodynamics of Multiphase Flow Reactors: Current Status and Challenges
,”
AIChE J.
,
46
(
6
), pp.
1102
1105.
5.
Syamlal
,
M.
, ed., 2006,
Report on Workshop on Multiphase Flow Research
, Morgantown, WV, June 6-7, 2006. Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1259.
6.
Joshi
,
J. B.
and
Ranade
,
V. V.
, 2003, “
Computational Fluid Dynamics for Designing Process Equipment: Expectations, Current Status, and Path Forward
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
42
, pp.
1115
1128.
7.
Mudde
,
R. F.
, 2005, “
Gravity-Driven Bubbly Flows
,”
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
,
37
, pp.
393
423.
8.
Grohse
,
E. W.
, 1955, “
Analysis of Gas-Fluidized Solid Systems by X-Ray Absorption
,”
AIChE J.
,
1
(
3
), pp.
358
365.
9.
Romero
,
J. B.
and
Smith
,
D. W.
, 1965, “
Flash X-Ray Analysis of Fluidized Beds
,”
AIChE J.
,
11
(
4
), pp.
595
600.
10.
Rowe
,
P. N.
and
Partridge
,
B. A.
, 1965, “
An X-Ray Study of Bubbles in Fluidised Beds
,”
Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng.
,
43
, pp.
T157
T175.
11.
Bennett
,
A. W.
,
Hewitt
,
G. F.
,
Kearsey
,
H. A.
,
Keeys
,
R. K. F.
, and
Lacey
,
P. M. C.
, 1965,
“Flow Visualization Studies of Boiling at High Pressure,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.
,
180
, pp.
1
11
.
12.
Hewitt
,
G. F.
and
Roberts
,
D. N.
, 1969,
“Studies of Two-Phase Flow Patterns by Simultaneous X-Ray and Flash Photography,”
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), Harwell, Berkshire, Technical Report No.
13.
Dudukovic
,
M. P.
, 2000, “
Opaque Multiphase Reactors: Experimentation, Modeling and Troubleshooting
,”
Oil Gas Sci. Technol.
,
55
(
2
), pp.
135
158.
14.
Yates
,
J. G.
and
Simons
,
J. R.
, 1994, “
Experimental Methods in Fluidization Research
,”
Int. J. Multiphase Flow
,
20
, pp.
297
330.
15.
Williams
,
R. A.
and
Beck
,
M. S.
, eds., 1995,
Process Tomography: Principles, Techniques and Applications
,
Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.
,
Oxford
.
16.
Beck
,
M. S.
and
Williams
,
R. A.
, 1996, “
Process Tomography: A European Innovation and Its Applications
,”
Meas. Sci. Technol.
,
7
, pp.
215
224.
17.
Chaouki
,
J.
,
Larachi
,
F.
, and
Dudukovic
,
M. P.
, eds.,
Non-Invasive Monitoring of Multiphase Flows
,
Elsevier
,
New York
.
18.
Chaouki
,
J.
,
Larachi
,
F.
, and
Dudukovic
,
M. P.
, 1997, “
Noninvasive Tomography and Velocimetric Monitoring of Multiphase Flows
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
36
, pp.
4476
4503.
19.
Boyer
,
C.
,
Duquenne
,
A. M.
, and
Wild
,
G.
, 2002, “
Measuring Techniques in Gas-Liquid and Gas-Liquid-Solid Reactors
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
57
, pp.
3185
3215.
20.
Yates
,
J. G.
,
Cheesman
,
D. J.
,
Lettieri
,
P.
, and
Newton
,
D.
, 2002, “
X-Ray Analysis of Fluidized Beds and Other Multiphase Systems
,”
Kona
,
20
, pp.
133
143.
21.
Van Ommen
,
J. R.
and
Mudde
,
R. F.
, 2008, “
Measuring the Gas-Solids Distribution in Fluidized Beds – A Review
,”
International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering
,
6
, pp.
R3
.
22.
Kak
,
A. C.
and
Slaney
,
M.
, 1998,
Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging
,
Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics
,
New York
.
23.
Marashdeh
,
Q.
,
Fan
,
L. S.
,
Du
,
B.
, and
Warsito
,
W.
, 2008, “
Electrical Capacitance Tomography – A Perspective
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
47
(
10
), pp.
3708
3719.
24.
Toye
,
D.
,
Marchot
,
P.
,
Crine
,
M.
, and
L’Homme
,
G.
, 1996, “
Modelling of Multiphase Flow in Packed Beds by Computer-Assisted X-Ray Tomography
,”
Meas. Sci. Technol.
,
7
(
3
), pp.
436
443.
25.
Ceccio
,
S. L.
and
George
,
D. L.
, 1996, “
A Review of Electrical Impedance Techniques for the Measurement of Multiphase Flows
,”
J. Fluids Eng.
,
118
, pp.
391
399.
26.
George
,
D. L.
,
Torczynski
,
J. R.
,
Shollenberger
,
K. A.
,
O’Hern
,
T. J.
, and
Ceccio
,
S. L.
, 2000, “
Validation of Electrical-Impedance Tomography for Measurements of Material Distribution in Two-Phase Flows
,”
Int. J. Multiphase Flow
,
26
, pp.
549
581.
27.
Tortora
,
P. R.
,
Ceccio
,
S. L.
,
O’Hern
,
T. J.
Trujillo
,
S. M.
and
Torczynski
,
J. R.
, 2006, “
Quantitative Measurement of Solids Distribution in Gas-Solid Riser Flows Using Electrical Impedance Tomography and Gamma Densitometry Tomography
,”
Int. J. Multiphase Flow
,
32
(
8
), pp.
972
995
.
28.
Fransolet
,
E.
,
Crine
,
M.
,
Marchot
,
P.
, and
Toye
,
D.
, 2005, “
Analysis of Gas Holdup in Bubble Columns with Non-Newtonian Fluid Using Electrical Resistance Tomography and Dynamic Gas Disengagement Technique
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
60
, pp.
6118
6123.
29.
Toye
,
D.
,
Fransolet
,
E.
,
Simon
,
D.
,
Crine
,
M.
,
L’Homme
,
G.
, and
Marchot
,
P.
, 2005, “
Possibilities and Limits of Application of Electrical Resistance Tomography in Hydrodynamics of Bubble Columns
,”
The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering
,
83
, pp.
4
10.
30.
Makkawi
,
Y. T.
and
Wright
,
P. C.
, 2002, “
Fluidization Regimes in a Conventional Fluidized Bed Characterized by Means of Electrical Capacitance Tomography
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
57
, pp.
2411
2437.
31.
Pugsley
,
T.
,
Tanfara
,
H.
,
Malcus
,
S.
,
Cui
,
H.
,
Chaouki
,
J.
and
Winters
,
C.
, 2003, “
Verification of Fluidized Bed Electrical Capacitance Tomography Measurements with a Fiber Optic Probe
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
58
, pp.
3923
3934.
32.
Warsito
,
W.
and
Fan
,
L.-S.
, 2003,
“3D-ECT Velocimetry for Flow Structure Quantification of Gas-Liquid-Solid Fluidized Beds,”
The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering
,
81
(
3-4
), pp.
875
884
.
33.
Warsito
,
W.
and
Fan
,
L.-S.
, 2003, “
ECT Imaging of Three-Phase Fluidized Bed Based on Three-Phase Capacitance Model
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
58
, pp.
823
832.
34.
Makkawi
,
Y. T.
and
Wright
,
P. C.
, 2004, “
Electrical Capacitance Tomography for Conventional Fluidized Bed Measurements – Remarks on the Measuring Technique
,”
Powder Technol.
,
148
(
2
), pp.
142
157.
35.
Gamio
,
J. C.
,
Castro
,
J.
,
Rivera
,
L.
,
Alamilla
,
J.
,
Garcia-Nocetti
,
F.
, and
Aguilar
,
L.
, 2005, “
Visualization of Gas-Oil Two-Phase Flows in Pressurized Pipes Using Electrical Capacitance Tomography
,”
Flow Meas. Instrum.
,
16
(
2
), pp.
129
134.
36.
Ismail
,
I.
,
Gamio
,
J. C.
,
Bukhari
,
S. F. A.
, and
Yang
,
W. Q.
, 2005, “
Tomography for Multi-Phase Flow Measurement in the Oil Industry
,”
Flow Meas. Instrum.
,
16
(
2-3
), pp.
145
155.
37.
Warsito
,
W.
and
Fan
,
L.-S.
, 2005, “
Dynamics of Spiral Bubble Plume Motion in the Entrance Region of Bubble Columns and Three Phase Fluidized Beds Using 3D ECT
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
60
, pp.
6073
6084.
38.
Du
,
B.
,
Warsito
,
W.
, and
Fan
,
L. S.
, 2006, “
Imaging the Choking Transition in Gas-Solid Risers Using Electrical Capacitance Tomography
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
45
(
15
), pp.
5384
5395.
39.
Utomo
,
M. B.
,
Warsito
,
W.
,
Sakai
,
T.
, and
Uchida
,
S.
, 2001, “
Analysis of Distributions of Gas and TiO2 Particles in Slurry Bubble Column Using Ultrasonic Computed Tomography
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
56
, pp.
6073
6079.
40.
Vatanakul
,
M.
,
Zheng
,
Y.
, and
Couturier
,
M.
, 2004, “
Application of Ultrasonic Technique in Multiphase Flows
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
43
, pp.
5681
5691.
41.
Zheng
,
Y.
and
Zhang
,
Q.
, 2004, “
Simultaneous Measurements of Gas and Solid Holdups in Multiphase Systems Using Ultrasonic Technique
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
59
, pp.
3505
3514.
42.
Kumar
,
S. B.
,
Moslemian
,
D.
, and
Dudukovic
,
M. P.
, 1995, “
A γ-Ray Tomographic Scanner for Imaging Voidage Distribution in Two-Phase Flow Systems
,”
Flow Meas. Instrum.
,
6
(
1
), pp.
61
73.
43.
Kumar
,
S. B.
and
Dudukovic
,
M. P.
, 1996,
“Computer Assisted Gamma and X-Ray Tomography: Applications to Multiphase Flow Systems,”
Non-Invasive Monitoring of Multiphase Flows
,
J.
Chaouki
,
F.
Larachi
and
M. P.
Dudukovic
, ed.,
Elsevier
,
New York
, pp.
47
103
.
44.
George
,
D. L.
,
Torczynski
,
J. R.
,
O’Hern
,
T. J.
,
Shollenberger
,
K. A.
,
Tortora
,
P. R.
, and
Ceccio
,
S. L.
, 2001,
“Quantitative Electrical-Impedance Tomography in an Electrically Conducting Bubble-Column Vessel,”
ASME 2001 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, New Orleans, LA, May 29-June 1, 2001.
45.
Yin
,
F.
,
Afacan
,
A.
,
Nandakumar
,
K.
, and
Chuang
,
K. T.
, 2002, “
Liquid Holdup Distribution in Packed Columns: Gamma Ray Tomography and CFD Simulation
,”
Chem. Eng. Process.
,
41
, pp.
473
483.
46.
Jin
,
H.
,
Yang
,
S.
,
He
,
G.
,
Guo
,
Z.
, and
Tong
,
Z.
, 2005, “
An Experimental Study of Holdups in Large-Scale P-Xylene Oxidation Reactors Using the γ-Ray Attenuation Approach
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
60
, pp.
5955
5961.
47.
Mudde
,
R. F.
,
Bruneau
,
P. R. P.
, and
Van Der Hagen
,
T. H. J. J.
, 2005, “
Time-Resolved γ-Densitometry Imaging within Fluidized Beds
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
44
, pp.
6181
6187.
48.
Rados
,
N.
,
Shaikh
,
A.
, and
Al-Dahhan
,
M.
, 2005, “
Phase Distribution in a High Pressure Slurry Bubble Column Via a Single Source Computed Tomography
,”
The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering
,
83
, pp.
104
112.
49.
Shaikh
,
A.
and
Al-Dahhan
,
M.
, 2005, “
Characterization of the Hydrodynamic Flow Regime in Bubble Columns Via Computed Tomography
,”
Flow Meas. Instrum.
,
16
(
2
), pp.
91
98.
50.
Kantzas
,
A.
, 1994, “
Computation of Holdups in Fluidized and Trickle Beds by Computer-Assisted Tomography
,”
AIChE J.
,
40
(
7
), pp.
1254
1261.
51.
Marchot
,
P.
,
Toye
,
D.
,
Pelsser
,
A.-M.
,
Crine
,
M.
,
L’Homme
,
G. L.
, and
Olujic
,
Z.
, 2001, “
Liquid Distribution Images on Structured Packing by X-Ray Computed Tomography
,”
AIChE J.
,
47
(
6
), pp.
1471
1476.
52.
Schmit
,
C. E.
and
Eldridge
,
R. B.
, 2004, “
Investigation of X-Ray Imaging of Vapor-Liquid Contactors: 1 – Studies Involving Stationary Objects and a Simple Flow System
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
59
, pp.
1255
1266.
53.
Schmit
,
C. E.
,
Perkins
,
J.
, and
Eldridge
,
R. B.
, 2004, “
Investigation of X-Ray Imaging of Vapor-Liquid Contactors: 2 – Experiments and Simulations of Flows in an Air-Water Contactor
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
59
, pp.
1267
1283.
54.
Prasser
,
H. M.
,
Misawa
,
M.
, and
Tiseanu
,
I.
, 2005, “
Comparison between Wire-Mesh Sensor and Ultra-Fast X-Ray Tomograph for an Air-Water Flow in a Vertical Pipe
,”
Flow Meas. Instrum.
,
16
(
2
), pp.
73
83.
55.
Hubers
,
J. L.
,
Striegel
,
A. C.
,
Heindel
,
T. J.
,
Gray
,
J. N.
, and
Jensen
,
T. C.
, 2005, “
X-Ray Computed Tomography in Large Bubble Columns
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
60
(
22
), pp.
6124
6133.
56.
Franka
,
N. P.
and
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2009, “
Local Time-Averaged Gas Holdup in a Fluidized Bed with Side Air Injection Using X-Ray Computed Tomography
,”
Powder Technol.
,
193
, pp.
69
78.
57.
Mudde
,
R. F.
, 2010, “
Time-Resolved X-Ray Tomography of a Fluidized Bed
,”
Powder Technol.
,
199
(
1
), pp.
55
59.
58.
Mudde
,
R. F.
, 2010, “
Double X-Ray Tomography of a Bubbling Fluidized Bed
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
49
(
11
), pp.
5061
5065.
59.
Dechsiri
,
C.
,
Ghione
,
A.
,
Van De Weil
,
F.
,
Dehling
,
H. G.
,
Paans
,
A. M. J.
, and
Hoffmann
,
A. C.
, 2005,
“Positron Emission Tomography Applied to Fluidization Engineering,”
The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering
,
83
, pp.
88
96
.
60.
Harvel
,
G. D.
,
Hori
,
K.
,
Kawanishi
,
K.
, and
Chang
,
J. S.
, 1999, “
Cross-Sectional Void Fraction Distribution Measurements in a Vertical Annulus Two-Phase Flow by High Speed X-Ray Computed Tomography and Real-Time Neutron Radiography Techniques
,”
Flow Meas. Instrum.
,
10
(
4
), pp.
259
266.
61.
Prasser
,
H. M.
, 2008, “
Novel Experimental Measuring Techniques Required to Provide Data for CFD Validation
,”
Nucl. Eng. Des.
,
238
(
3
), pp.
744
770.
62.
Rees
,
A. C.
,
Davidson
,
J. F.
,
Dennis
,
J. S.
,
Fennell
,
P. S.
,
Gladden
,
L. F.
,
Hayhurst
,
A. N.
,
Mantle
,
M. D.
,
Muller
,
C. R.
, and
Sederman
,
A. J.
, 2006, “
The Nature of the Flow Just above the Perforated Plate Distributor of a Gas-Fluidised Bed, as Imaged Using Magnetic Resonance
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
61
(
18
), pp.
6002
6015.
63.
Muller
,
C. R.
,
Holland
,
D. J.
,
Sederman
,
A. J.
,
Mantle
,
M. D.
,
Gladden
,
L. F.
, and
Davidson
,
J. F.
, 2008, “
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Fluidized Beds
,”
Powder Technol.
,
183
(
1
), pp.
53
62.
64.
Powell
,
R. L.
, 2008, “
Experimental Techniques for Multiphase Flows
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
20
(
4
), pp.
040605
040622.
65.
Devanathan
,
N.
,
Moslemian
,
D.
, and
Dudukovic
,
M. P.
, 1990, “
Flow Mapping in Bubble Columns Using CARPT
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
45
(
8
), pp.
2285
2291.
66.
Sun
,
J. G.
and
Chen
,
M. M.
, 1999,
“Radioactive Tracer Techniques,”
Instrumentation for Fluid-Particle Flow
,
S. L.
Soo
, ed.,
Noyes Publications
,
Park Ridge, NJ
, pp.
354
401
.
67.
Rados
,
N.
,
Shaikh
,
A.
, and
Al-Dahhan
,
M. H.
, 2005,
“Solids Flow Mapping in a High Pressure Slurry Bubble Column,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
60
, pp.
6067
6072
.
68.
Chen
,
P.
,
Gupta
,
P.
,
Dudukovic
,
M. P.
, and
Toseland
,
B. A.
, 2006, “
Hydrodynamics of Slurry Bubble Column During Dimethyl Ether (DME) Synthesis: Gas-Liquid Recirculation Model and Radioactive Tracer Studies
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
61
(
19
), pp.
6553
6570.
69.
Fraguio
,
M. S.
,
Cassanello
,
M. C.
,
Larachi
,
F.
, and
Chaouki
,
J.
, 2006, “
Flow Regime Transition Pointers in Three-Phase Fluidized Beds Inferred from a Solid Tracer Trajectory
,”
Chem. Eng. Process.
,
45
(
5
), pp.
350
358.
70.
Seeger
,
A.
,
Affeld
,
K.
,
Goubergrits
,
L.
,
Kertzscher
,
U.
, and
Wellnhofer
,
E.
, 2001, “
X-Ray-Based Assessment of the Three-Dimensional Velocity of the Liquid Phase in a Bubble Column
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
31
, pp.
193
201.
71.
Seeger
,
A.
,
Kertzscher
,
U.
,
Affeld
,
K.
, and
Wellnhofer
,
E.
, 2003, “
Measurement of the Local Velocity of the Solid Phase and the Local Solid Hold-up in a Three-Phase Flow by X-Ray Based Particle Tracking Velocimetry (XPTV)
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
58
, pp.
1721
1729.
72.
Lee
,
S.-J.
and
Kim
,
G.-B.
, 2003, “
X-Ray Particle Image Velocimetry for Measuring Quantitative Flow Information inside Opaque Objects
,”
J. Appl. Physics
,
94
(
5
), pp.
3620
3623.
73.
Drake
,
J. B.
,
Tang
,
L.
, and
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2009, “X-Ray Particle Tracking Velocimetry in Fluidized Beds,” Proceedings of the 2009 ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, Vail, CO, August 2–9, Paper No. FEDSM2009-78150.
74.
Furui
,
S.
,
Umekawa
,
H.
,
Tsuzuki
,
M.
,
Okura
,
M.
,
Ozawa
,
M.
, and
Takenaka
,
N.
, 2005, “
Visualization of Fluidized-Bed Heat Exchanger in Upward/Downword Flow Condition by Neutron Radiography
,”
Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A
,
542
, pp.
161
167.
75.
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2002, “
Bubble Size in a Cocurrent Fiber Slurry
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
41
(
3
), pp.
632
641.
76.
Sun
,
W. L.
,
Littleton
,
H. E.
, and
Bates
,
C. E.
, 2002, “
Real-Time X-Ray Investigations on Lost Foam Mold Filling
,”
AFS Transactions
,
110
, pp.
1347
1356.
77.
Basavaraj
,
M. G.
,
Gupta
,
G. S.
,
Naveen
,
K.
,
Rudolph
,
V.
, and
Bali
,
R.
, 2005, “
Local Liquid Holdups and Hysteresis in a 2-D Packed Bed Using X-Ray Radiography
,”
AIChE J.
,
51
(
8
), pp.
2178
2189.
78.
Hulme
,
I.
and
Kantzas
,
A.
, 2004, “
Determination of Bubble Diameter and Axial Velocity for a Polyethylene Fluidized Bed Using X-Ray Fluoroscopy
,”
Powder Technol.
,
147
, pp.
20
33.
79.
Grassler
,
T.
and
Wirth
,
K.-E.
, 2000, “
X-Ray Computer Tomography - Potential and Limitation for the Measurement of Local Solids Distribution in Circulating Fluidized Beds
,”
Chem. Eng. J.
,
77
, pp.
65
72.
80.
Du
,
B.
,
Warsito
,
W.
, and
Fan
,
L.-S.
, 2005, “
ECT Studies of Gas-Solid Fluidized Beds of Different Diameters
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
44
, pp.
5020
5030.
81.
Mudde
,
R. F.
, 2011,
“Bubbles in a Fluidized Bed: A Fast X-Ray Scanner,”
AIChE J., in press.
82.
Selman
,
J.
, 1994,
The Fundamentals of X-Ray and Radium Physics
,
Charles C. Thompson, Publisher
,
Springfield, IL
.
83.
Cartz
,
L.
, 1995,
Nondestructive Testing
,
ASM International
,
Materials Park, OH
.
84.
Ketcham
,
R. A.
and
Carlson
,
W. D.
, 2001, “
Acquisition, Optimization and Interpretation of X-Ray Computed Tomography Imagery: Applications to the Geosciences
,”
Comput. Geosci.
,
27
, pp.
381
400.
85.
Hsieh
,
J.
, 2003,
Computed Tomography: Principles, Design, Artifacts, and Recent Advances
,
SPIE
,
Bellingham, WA
.
86.
Pedrotti
,
F. L.
,
Pedrotti
,
L. S.
, and
Pedrotti
,
L. M.
, 2007,
Introduction to Optics
,
Pearson Prentice Hall
,
Upper Saddle River, NJ
.
87.
Mennell
,
J.
,
Byrne
,
B.
, and
Yan
,
Y.
, 2000, “
Appraisal of Radiometric Techniques to Determine Absolute Solids Fraction in Pneumatic Suspensions of Particulate Solids
,”
Flow Meas. Instrum.
,
11
(
3
), pp.
213
221.
88.
Chotas
,
H. G.
,
Dobbins
,
J. T.
, and
Ravin
,
C. E.
, 1999, “
Principles of Digital Radiography with Large-Area, Electronically Readable Detectors: A Review of the Basics
,”
Radiology
,
210
(
3
), pp.
595
599.
89.
Heindel
,
T. J.
,
Gray
,
J. N.
, and
Jensen
,
T. C.
, 2008, “
An X-Ray System for Visualizing Fluid Flows
,”
Flow Meas. Instrum.
,
19
(
2
), pp.
67
78.
90.
Heindel
,
T. J.
,
Hubers
,
J. L.
,
Jensen
,
T. C.
,
Gray
,
J. N.
, and
Striegel
,
A. C.
, 2005, “Using X-Rays for Multiphase Flow Visualization,” Proceedings of the 2005 ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting and Exhibition, Houston, TX, June 19–23, Paper No. FEDS2005-77359.
91.
Heindel
,
T. J.
,
Jensen
,
T. C.
, and
Gray
,
J. N.
, 2007, “Visualizing Fluid Flows with X-Rays,” Proceedings of FEDSM2007: 5th Joint ASME/JSME Fluids Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, July 30 – August 2, Paper No. FEDSM2007-37023.
92.
Gupta
,
G. S.
,
Litster
,
J. D.
,
Rudolph
,
V.
, and
White
,
E. T.
, 1997, “
Flow Visualization Study in Porous Media Using X-Rays
,”
Steel Res.
,
68
(
10
), pp.
434
440.
93.
Rowe
,
P. N.
and
Yacono
,
C. X. R.
, 1976, “
The Bubbling Behaviour of Fine Powders When Fluidised
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
31
(
12
), pp.
1179
1192.
94.
Rowe
,
P. N.
,
Santoro
,
L.
, and
Yates
,
J. G.
, 1978, “
The Division of Gas between Bubble and Interstitial Phases in Fluidised Beds of Fine Powders
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
33
(
1
), pp.
133
140.
95.
Yates
,
J. G.
,
Cheesman
,
D. J.
, and
Sergeev
,
Y. A.
, 1994, “
Experimental Observations of Voidage Distribution around Bubbles in a Fluidized Bed
,”
Chem, Eng, Sci
,
49
(
12
), pp.
1885
1895.
96.
He
,
Z.
,
Wu
,
B.
,
Chandrasekaran
,
B.
,
Bellehumeur
,
C.
, and
Kantzas
,
A.
, 2007,
“X-Ray Fluoroscopy Measurements and CFD Simulation of Hydrodynamics in a Two Dimensional Gas-Solids Fluidized Bed,”
2007 ECI Conference on the 12th International Conference on Fluidization - New Horizons in Fluidization Engineering, Vancouver, Canada, pp.
481
488
.
97.
Jenneson
,
P. M.
and
Gundogdu
,
O.
, 2006, “
In Situ X-Ray Imaging of Nanoparticle Agglomeration in Fluidized Beds
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
88
, p.
034103
.
98.
Roels
,
S.
and
Carmeliet
,
J.
, 2006, “
Analysis of Moisture Flow in Porous Materials Using Microfocus X-Ray Radiography
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
49
(
25
), pp.
4762
4772.
99.
Van Der Merwe
,
W.
,
Nicol
,
W.
, and
De Beer
,
F.
, 2007, “
Trickle Flow Distribution and Stability by X-Ray Radiography
,”
Chem. Eng. J.
,
132
(
1
), pp.
47
59.
100.
Caulk
,
D. A.
, 2006, “
A Foam Engulfment Model for Lost Foam Casting of Aluminum
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
49
(
21
), pp.
3831
3845.
101.
Uchida
,
K.
and
Okamoto
,
K.
, 2006, “
Measurement of Powder Flow in a Screw Feeder by X-Ray Penetration Image Analysis
,”
Meas. Sci. Technol.
,
17
(
2
), pp.
419
426.
102.
Uchida
,
K.
and
Okamoto
,
K.
, 2008, “
Measurement Technique on the Diffusion Coefficient of Powder Flow in a Screw Feeder by X-Ray Visualization
,”
Powder Technol.
,
187
(
2
), pp.
138
145.
103.
Jamet
,
F.
and
Thomer
,
G.
, 1976,
Flash Radiography
,
Elsevier
,
New York
.
104.
Grady
,
D. E.
and
Kipp
,
M. E.
, 1994, “
Experimental and Computational Simulation of the High Velocity Impact of Copper Spheres on Steel Plates
,”
Int. J. Impact Eng.
,
15
(
5
), pp.
645
660.
105.
Primex Physics International, 1996, Flash X-Ray Seminar Notes, San Leandro, CA.
106.
Charbonnier
,
F.
, 1985,
“Flash Radiography,”
Nondestructive Testing Handbook. Vol. 3 - Radiography and Radiation Testing
,
L. E.
Bryant
and
P.
McIntire
, eds.,
American Society for Metals: Metals Park
,
OH
, pp.
491
531
.
107.
Triantafillopoulos
,
N. G.
and
Farrington
,
T. E.
, Jr.
, 1988, “Flash X-Ray Radiography Techniques for Visualizing Coating Flows,” 1988 TAPPI Coating Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 8–12, pp.
47
52
.
108.
Smith
,
G. B.
,
Gamblin
,
B. R.
, and
Newton
,
D.
, 1995,
“X-Ray Imaging of Slurry Bubble Column Reactors: The Effect of System Pressure and Scale,”
Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng., Part A
73
(
A6
), pp.
632
636
.
109.
Farrington
,
T. E.
, Jr.
, 1986, “A More Fundamental Approach to the Problem of High Consistency Forming,” 1986 TAPPI Engineering Conference, Atlanta, GA, September 22–25, pp.
709
717
.
110.
Farrington
,
T. E.
, Jr.
, 1988, “
Soft X-Ray Imaging Can Be Used to Assess Sheet Formation and Quality
,”
Tappi J.
,
71
(
5
), pp.
140
144.
111.
Farrington
,
T. E.
, Jr.
, 1988, “
Flash X-Ray Imaging of Kraft Black Liquor Sprays
,”
Tappi J.
,
71
(
2
), pp.
89
92.
112.
Zavaglia
,
J. C.
and
Lindsay
,
J. D.
, 1989, “
Flash X-Ray Visualization of Multiphase Flow During Impulse Drying
,”
Tappi J.
,
72
(
9
), pp.
79
85.
113.
Garner
,
A. E.
and
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2000, “
The Effect of Fiber Type on Bubble Size
,”
J. Pulp Pap. Sci.
,
26
(
7
), pp.
266
269.
114.
Heindel
,
T. J.
and
Monefeldt
,
J. L.
, 1997, “Flash X-Ray Radiography for Visualizing Gas Flows in Opaque Liquid/Fiber Suspensions,” 6th International Symposium on Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows, Vancouver, BC, June 22–26.
115.
Heindel
,
T. J.
and
Monefeldt
,
J. L.
, 1998, “
Observations of the Bubble Dynamics in a Pulp Suspension Using Flash X-Ray Radiography
,”
Tappi J.
,
81
(
11
), pp.
149
158.
116.
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 1999, “
Bubble Size Measurements in a Quiescent Fiber Suspension
,”
J. Pulp Pap. Sci.
,
25
(
3
), pp.
104
110.
117.
Heindel
,
T. J.
and
Garner
,
A. E.
, 1999, “
The Effect of Fiber Consistency on Bubble Size
,”
Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J.
,
14
(
2
), pp.
171
178.
118.
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2000,
“Gas Flow Regime Changes in a Bubble Column Filled with a Fiber Suspension,”
The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering
,
78
(
5
), pp.
1017
1022
.
119.
Heindel
,
T. J.
and
Omberg
,
S. J.
, 2001,
“Gas Bubble Size in a Synthetic Fiber Slurry,”
in
4th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
,
E. E.
Michaelides
, ed., ICMF-2001,
New Orleans, LA
.
120.
Grantham
,
S. G.
and
Forsberg
,
F.
, 2004, “
Measurement of Granular Flow in a Silo Using Digital Speckle Radiography
,”
Powder Technol.
,
146
(
1
), pp.
56
65.
121.
Kastengren
,
A. L.
,
Powell
,
C. F.
,
Riedel
,
T.
,
Cheong
,
S.-K.
,
Im
,
K.-S.
,
Liu
,
X.
,
Wanng
,
Y. J.
, and
Wang
,
J.
, 2008, “
Nozzle Geometry and Injection Duration Effects on Diesel Sprays Measured by X-Ray Radiography
,”
J. Fluids Eng.
,
130
, pp.
041301
-1–041301-
12
.
122.
Coutier-Delgosha
,
O.
,
Vabre
,
A.
,
Hocevar
,
M.
,
Delion
,
R.
,
Dazin
,
A.
,
Lazaro
,
D.
,
Gmar
,
M.
,
Fezzaa
,
K.
, and
Lee
,
W.-K.
, 2009, “Local Measurements in Cavitating Flow by Ultra Fast X-Ray Imaging,” Proceedings of the 2009 ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, Vail, CO, August 2–6, Paper No. FEDS2009-78407.
123.
Kim
,
J.
,
Je
,
J.
,
Kaviany
,
M.
,
Son
,
S. Y.
, and
Kim
,
M. H.
, 2010, “Visualization of Water Distribution in Gas Diffusion Layer of Fuel Cell Using 2-D and 3-D X-Ray Radiography,” Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, Tampa, FL, May 30 – June 4.
124.
Doering
,
E. R.
, 1992,
“Three-Dimensional Flaw Reconstruction Using a Real-Time X-Ray Imaging System,”
Ph.D. thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, IA.
125.
Jensen
,
T. C.
and
Gray
,
J. N.
, 2006,
“Model-Assisted Reconstruction of Volumetric Data,”
U.S. Patent No. 7,092,484,
126.
Lee
,
D. J.
and
Cha
,
S. S.
, 2003, “Three-Dimensional Measurement of Fluid Flow in Stereoscopic Tracking Velocimetry,” Proceedings of SPIE, Anaheim, CA, pp.
73
85
.
127.
Lee
,
D. J.
,
Cha
,
S. S.
, and
Ramachandran
,
N.
, 2004, “Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Optical/X-Ray Stereoscopic Tracking Velocimetry,” 2004 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Anaheim, CA, Paper No. IMECE2004-62450.
128.
Lee
,
D. J.
,
Cha
,
S. S.
, and
Ramachandran
,
N.
, 2006, “
Application of Stereoscopic Tracking Velocimetry for Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Directional Solidification
,”
Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
,
30
(
3
), pp.
203
.
129.
Seeger
,
A.
,
Affeld
,
K.
,
Kertzscher
,
U.
,
Goubergrits
,
L.
, and
Wellnhofer
,
E.
, 2001, “Assessment of Flow Structures in Bubble Columns by X-Ray Based Particle Tracking Velocimetry,” 4th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry, Gottingen, Germany.
130.
Schober
,
L.
and
Kantzas
,
A.
, 2004,
“Analysis and Interpretation of Multiple Radioactive Particle Tracking Data on Laboratory Scale Air/Polyethylene Fluidized Beds,”
The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering
,
82
, pp.
220
226
.
131.
Kertzscher
,
U.
,
Seeger
,
A.
,
Affeld
,
K.
,
Goubergrits
,
L.
, and
Wellnhofer
,
E.
, 2004, “
X-Ray Based Particle Tracking Velocimetry – A Measurement Technique for Multi-Phase Flows and Flows without Optical Access
,”
Flow Meas. Instrum.
,
15
(
4
), pp.
199
206.
132.
Owens
,
S. A.
,
Kossmann
,
A.
,
Farone
,
J.
,
Eldridge
,
R. B.
, and
Ketcham
,
R. A.
, 2009, “
Flow Field Visualization in Structured Packing Using Real Time X-Ray Radiography
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
48
(
7
), pp.
3606
3618.
133.
Shimada
,
T.
,
Habu
,
H.
,
Seike
,
Y.
,
Ooya
,
S.
,
Miyachi
,
H.
, and
Ishikawa
,
M.
, 2007, “
X-Ray Visualization Measurement of Slurry Flow in Solid Propellant Casting
,”
Flow Meas. Instrum.
,
18
(
5
), pp.
235
240.
134.
Kim
,
G.-B.
and
Lee
,
S.-J.
, 2004, “Velocity Field Measurements of Blood Flows Using a Synchrotron X-Ray Imaging Technique,” 2004 Proceedings of SPIE International Symposium on Biomedical Optics, San Jose, CA, January 24–29.
135.
Im
,
K.-S.
,
Fezzaa
,
K.
,
Wang
,
Y. J.
,
Liu
,
X.
,
Wang
,
J.
, and
Lai
,
M. C.
, 2007, “
Particle Tracking Velocimetry Using Fast X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
90
(
9
), pp.
091919
1.
136.
Kakimoto
,
K.
,
Eguchi
,
M.
,
Watanabe
,
H.
, and
Hibiya
,
T.
, 1988, “
Direct Observation by X-Ray Radiography of Convection of Molten Silicon in the Czochralski Growth Method
,”
J. Cryst. Growth
,
88
(
3
), pp.
365
370.
137.
Munakata
,
T.
and
Tanasawa
,
I.
, 1999, “
Study on Silicon Melt Convection During the Rf-Fz Crystal Growth Process: I. Experimental Flow Visualization
,”
J. Cryst. Growth
,
206
(
1-2
), pp.
23
26.
138.
Drake
,
J. B.
,
Franka
,
N. P.
, and
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2008, “X-Ray Particle Tracking Velocimetry for Applications in Fluidized Beds,” Proceedings of the 2008 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Boston, MA, October 31 – November 6, Paper No. IMECE2008-66224.
139.
Drake
,
J. B.
,
Kenney
,
A. L.
, and
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2011, “Developing Tracer Particles for X-Ray Particle Tracking Velocimetry,” Proceedings of the 2011 ASME-JSME-KSME Joint Fluids Engineering Conference, AJK2011, Hamamatsu, Japan, July 24–29, Paper No. AJK2011-11009.
140.
Morgan
,
T. B.
and
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2007, “Observations of Dense Particle Motion in a Vibration-Excited Granular Bed,” Proceedings of IMECE2007: 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Seattle, WA, November 11–15, Paper No. IMECE2007-42306.
141.
Morgan
,
T. B.
and
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2010, “X-Ray Particle Tracking of Dense Particle Motion in a Vibration-Excited Granular Bed,” Proceedings of the 2010 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, November 12–18, Paper No. IMECE2010-39106.
142.
Wellington
,
S. L.
and
Vinegar
,
H. J.
, 1987, “
X-Ray Computerized Tomography
,”
J. Pet. Technol.
,
39
(
8
), pp.
885
898.
143.
Barrett
,
H. H.
and
Swindell
,
W.
, 1981,
Radiological Imaging: The Theory of Image Formation, Detection, and Processing
,
Academic
,
New York
.
144.
Ikeda
,
T.
,
Kotani
,
K.
,
Maeda
,
Y.
, and
Kohno
,
H.
, 1983, “
Preliminary Study of Application of X-Ray CT Scanner to Measurement of Void Fractions in Steady State Two-Phase Flows
,”
J. Nucl. Science Technol.
,
20
(
1
), pp.
1
12.
145.
Behling
,
M.
and
Mewes
,
D.
, 2006, “Dual-Energy X-Ray Tomographic Measurement of Local Phase Fractions in 3-Phase Bubble Columns,” 2006 ASME Joint U.S. - European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, Miami, Fl, July 17–20, Paper No. FEDSM2006-98142.
146.
Wu
,
C.
,
Cheng
,
Y.
,
Ding
,
Y.
,
Wei
,
F.
, and
Jin
,
Y.
, 2007, “
A Novel X-Ray Computed Tomography Method for Fast Measurement of Multiphase Flow
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
62
(
16
), pp.
4325
4335.
147.
Du
,
D.-X.
,
Beni
,
A. N.
,
Farajzadeh
,
R.
, and
Zitha
,
P. L. J.
, 2008, “
Effect of Water Solubility on Carbon Dioxide Foam Flow in Porous Media: An X-Ray Computed Tomography Study
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
47
(
16
), pp.
6298
6306.
148.
Hewitt
,
G. F.
, 1982,
“Measurement Techniques: Overall Measurements - Measurement of Void Fraction,”
Handbook of Multiphase Systems
,
G.
Hetsroni
, ed.,
Hemisphere Publishing Corp.
,
New York
, Chap. 10.2.1.2.
149.
Drake
,
J. B.
and
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2011,
“The Repeatability and Uniformity in 3D Fluidized Beds,”
Powder Technol. (submitted).
150.
Heindel
,
T. J.
,
Jensen
,
T. C.
,
Drake
,
J. B.
,
McCormick
,
N.
, and
Riveland
,
M. L.
, 2010, “3D X-Ray CT Imaging of Cavitation from a Butterfly Valve,” Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, Tampa, FL, May 30 – June 4, Paper No. 1746.
151.
ASTM, 1997, “Standard Guide for Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging,” Technical Report, American Society for Testing and Materials.
152.
Lutran
,
P. G.
,
Ng
,
K. M.
, and
Delikat
,
E. P.
, 1991, “
Liquid Distribution in Trickle-Beds. An Experimental Study Using Computer-Assisted Tomography
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
30
(
6
), pp.
1270
1280.
153.
Toye
,
D.
,
Marchot
,
P.
,
Crine
,
M.
,
Pelsser
,
A. M.
, and
L’Homme
,
G.
, 1998, “
Local Measurements of Void Fraction and Liquid Holdup in Packed Columns Using X-Ray Computed Tomography
,”
Chem. Eng. Process.
,
37
(
6
), pp.
511
520.
154.
Schmit
,
C. E.
,
Cartmel
,
D. B.
, and
Eldridge
,
R. B.
, 2001, “
The Experimental Application of X-Ray Tomography to a Vapor-Liquid Contactor
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
56
, pp.
3431
3441.
155.
Van Der Merwe
,
W.
,
Nicol
,
W.
, and
De Beer
,
F.
, 2007, “
Three-Dimensional Analysis of Trickle Flow Hydrodynamics: Computed Tomography Image Acquisition and Processing
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
62
(
24
), pp.
7233
7244.
156.
Kantzas
,
A.
and
Kalogerakis
,
N.
, 1996, “
Monitoring the Fluidization Characteristics of Polyolefin Resins Using X-Ray Computer Assisted Tomography Scanning
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
51
(
10
), pp.
1979
1990.
157.
Kantzas
,
A.
,
Wright
,
I.
, and
Kalogerakis
,
N.
, 1997, “
Quantification of Channelling in Polyethylene Resin Fluid Beds Using X-Ray Computer Assisted Tomography (CAT)
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
52
(
13
), pp.
2023
2035.
158.
Wu
,
B.
,
Yu
,
G.
,
Bellehumeur
,
C.
, and
Kantzas
,
A.
, 2007, “
Dynamic Flow Behavior Measurements in Gas-Solid Fluidized Beds Using Different Non-Intrusive Techniques and Polyethylene Powder
,”
Flow Meas. Instrum.
,
18
(
5
), pp.
197
203.
159.
Chen
,
M.-R.
,
Hinkley
,
R. E.
, and
Killough
,
J. E.
, 1996, “
Computed Tomography Imaging of Air Sparging in Porous Media
,”
Water Resour. Res.
,
32
(
10
), pp.
3013
3024.
160.
Anderson
,
S. H.
,
Peyton
,
R. L.
,
Wigger
,
J. W.
, and
Gantzer
,
C. J.
, 1992, “
Influence of Aggregate Size on Solute Transport as Measured Using Computed Tomography
,”
Geoderma
,
53
(
3
), pp.
387
398.
161.
Heijs
,
A. W. J.
,
De Lange
,
J.
,
Schoute
,
J. F. T.
, and
Bouma
,
J.
, 1995, “
Computed Tomography as a Tool for Non-Destructive Analysis of Flow Patterns in Macroporous Clay Soils
,”
Geoderma
,
64
, pp.
183
196.
162.
Morooka
,
S.
,
Ishizuka
,
T.
,
Iizuka
,
M.
, and
Yoshimura
,
K.
, 1989, “
Experimental Study on Void Fraction in a Simulated BWR Fuel Assembly (Evaluation of Cross-Sectional Averaged Void Fraction)
,”
Nucl. Eng. Des.
,
114
(
1
), pp.
91
98.
163.
Mitsutake
,
T.
,
Morooka
,
S.
,
Suzuki
,
K.
,
Tsunoyama
,
S.
, and
Yoshimura
,
K.
, 1990, “
Void Fraction Estimation within Rod Bundles Based on Three-Fluid Model and Comparison with X-Ray CT Void Data
,”
Nucl. Eng. Des.
,
120
(
2
), pp.
203
212.
164.
Boden
,
S.
,
Bieberle
,
M.
, and
Hampel
,
U.
, 2008, “
Quantitative Measurement of Gas Hold-up Distribution in a Stirred Chemical Reactor Using X-Ray Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
,”
Chem. Eng. J.
,
139
(
2
), pp.
351
362.
165.
Ford
,
J. J.
,
Heindel
,
T. J.
,
Jensen
,
T. C.
, and
Drake
,
J. B.
, 2008, “
X-Ray Computed Tomography of a Gas-Sparged Stirred-Tank Reactor
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
63
, pp.
2075
2085.
166.
Deza
,
M.
,
Battaglia
,
F.
, and
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2007, “Computational Modeling of Biomass in a Fluidized Bed Gasifier,” Proceedings of IMECE2007: 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Seattle, WA, November 11–15, Paper No. IMECE2007-43097.
167.
Franka
,
N. P.
,
Heindel
,
T. J.
, and
Battaglia
,
F.
, 2007, “Visualizing Cold-Flow Fluidized Beds with X-Rays,” Proceedings of IMECE2007: 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Seattle, WA, November 11–15, Paper No. IMECE2007-43073.
168.
Deza
,
M.
,
Franka
,
N. P.
,
Battaglia
,
F.
, and
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2009, “
CFD Modeling and X-Ray Imaging of Biomass in a Fluidized Bed
,”
J. Fluids Eng.
,
131
(
11
), p.
111303
.
169.
Franka
,
N. P.
,
Drake
,
J. B.
, and
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2008, “Minimum Fluidization Velocity and Gas Holdup in Fluidized Beds with Side Port Air Injection,” Proceedings of FEDSM2008: 2008 ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, Jacksonville, FL, August 10–14, Paper No. FEDSM2008-55100.
170.
Min
,
J.
,
Drake
,
J. B.
,
Fox
,
R. O.
, and
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2008,
“CFD Modeling of Cold-Flow Fluidized Beds and Validation with X-Ray Computed Tomography,”
2008 AIChE Annual Meeting
,
Philadelphia, PA
, November 16–21.
171.
Deza
,
M.
,
Battaglia
,
F.
, and
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2008, “A Validation Study for the Hydrodynamics of Biomass in a Fluidized Bed,” Proceedings of FEDSM2008: 2008 ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Conference, Jacksonville, FL, August 10–14, Paper No. FEDSM2008-55158.
172.
Deza
,
M.
,
Battaglia
,
F.
, and
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2009, “Modeling a Biomass Fluidizing Bed with Side Port Air Injection,” Proceedings of the 2009 ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, Vail, CO, August 2–6, Paper No. FEDSM2009-78372.
173.
Gavi
,
E.
,
Heindel
,
T. J.
, and
Fox
,
R. O.
, 2010, “Modeling Fluidization in Biomass Gasification Processes,” Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, Tampa, FL, May 30 – June 4, Paper No. 1956.
174.
Min
,
J.
,
Drake
,
J. B.
,
Heindel
,
T. J.
, and
Fox
,
R. O.
, 2010, “
Experimental Validation of CFD Simulations of a Lab-Scale Fluidized-Bed Reactor with and without Side-Gas Injection
,”
AIChE J.
,
56
(
6
), pp.
1434
1446.
175.
DiVall
,
M.
and
Heindel
,
T. J.
, 2009, “X-Ray Flow Visualization of a Circular Hydraulic Jump,” Proceedings of the 2009 ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, Vail, CO, August 2–6, Paper No. FEDSM2009-78035.
176.
Moreno-Atanasio
,
R.
,
Williams
,
R. A.
, and
Jia
,
X.
, 2010, “
Combining X-Ray Microtomography with Computer Simulation for Analysis of Granular and Porous Materials
,”
Particuology
,
8
(
2
), pp.
81
99.
177.
Harvel
,
G. D.
,
Hori
,
K.
,
Kawanishi
,
K.
, and
Chang
,
J. S.
, 1996, “
Real-Time Cross-Sectional Averaged Void Fraction Measurements in Vertical Annulus Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow by Neutron Radiography and X-Ray Tomography Techniques
,”
Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A
,
371
(
3
), pp.
544
552.
178.
Hori
,
K.
,
Kawanishi
,
K.
,
Hamamura
,
H.
,
Ochi
,
M.
, and
Akai
,
M.
, 1994, “A High Speed X-Ray Computed Tomography Scanner for Multipurpose Flow Visualization and Measurement,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulics, Operations, and Safety, Taipei, Taiwan, April 6–8, pp.
43
-D-1–43-D-
6
.
179.
Hori
,
K.
,
Fujimoto
,
T.
, and
Kawanishi
,
K.
, 1998, “
Development of Ultra-Fast X-Ray Computed Tomography Scanner System
,”
IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.
,
45
, pp.
2089
2094.
180.
Hori
,
K.
,
Fujimoto
,
T.
,
Kawanishi
,
K.
, and
Nishikawa
,
H.
, 2000, “
Development of an Ultrafast X-Ray Computed Tomography Scanner System: Application for Measurement of Instantaneous Void Distribution of Gas–Liquid Two-Phase Flow
,”
Heat TransferAsian Res.
,
29
(
3
), pp.
155
165.
181.
Kai
,
T.
,
Misawa
,
M.
,
Takahashi
,
T.
,
Tiseanu
,
I.
, and
Ichikawa
,
N.
, 2005, “
Observation of 3-D Structures of Bubbles in a Fluidized Catalyst Bed
,”
The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering
,
83
, pp.
113
118.
182.
Bieberle
,
M.
and
Hampel
,
U.
, 2006, “
Evaluation of a Limited Angle Scanned Electron Beam X-Ray CT Approach for Two-Phase Pipe Flows
,”
Meas. Sci. Technol.
,
17
, pp.
2057
2065
.
183.
Bieberle
,
M.
,
Fischer
,
F.
,
Schleicher
,
E.
,
Franke
,
M.
,
Menz
,
H. J.
,
Mayer
,
H. G.
,
Laurien
,
E.
, and
Hampel
,
U.
, 2010, “Ultrafast Multiphase Flow Imaging by Electron Beam X-Ray Computed Tomography,” Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, Tampa, FL, May 30 – June 4.
184.
Bieberle
,
M.
,
Fischer
,
F.
,
Schleicher
,
E.
,
Menz
,
H. J.
,
Mayer
,
H. G.
, and
Hampel
,
U.
, 2010, “
Ultrafast Cross-Sectional Imaging of Gas-Particle Flow in a Fluidized Bed
,”
AIChE J.
,
56
(
8
), pp.
2221
2225.
185.
Bieberle
,
M.
,
Schleicher
,
E.
,
Fischer
,
F.
,
Koch
,
D.
,
Menz
,
H. J.
,
Mayer
,
H. G.
, and
Hampel
,
U.
, 2010, “
Dual-Plane Ultrafast Limited-Angle Electron Beam X-Ray Tomography
,”
Flow Meas. Instrum.
,
21
(
3
), pp.
233
239.
186.
Hu
,
B.
,
Stewart
,
C.
,
Hale
,
C.
,
Lawrence
,
C.
,
Hall
,
A.
,
Zwiens
,
H.
, and
Hewitt
,
G.
, 2005, “
Development of an X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) System with Sparse Sources: Application to Three-Phase Pipe Flow Visualization
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
39
(
4
), pp.
667
678.
187.
Waelchli
,
S.
,
Rudolph Von Rohr
,
P.
, and
Stampanoni
,
M.
, 2005, “
Multiphase Flow Visualization in Microchannels Using X-Ray Tomographic Microscopy (XTM)
,”
J. Flow Visualization Image Process.
,
12
, pp.
1
13.
188.
Wu
,
C.
,
Cheng
,
Y.
,
Liu
,
M.
, and
Jin
,
Y.
, 2008, “
Measurement of Axisymmetric Two-Phase Flows by an Improved X-Ray-Computed Tomography Technique
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
47
(
6
), pp.
2063
2074.
189.
Charvet
,
A.
,
Rolland Du Roscoat
,
S.
,
Peralba
,
M.
,
Bloch
,
J. F.
, and
Gonthier
,
Y.
, 2011, “
Contribution of Synchrotron X-Ray Holotomography to the Understanding of Liquid Distribution in a Medium During Liquid Aerosol Filtration
,”
Chem, Eng, Sci
,
66
(
4
), pp.
624
631.
You do not currently have access to this content.