The hydrodynamics of stirred vessels with side-entering impellers, which are used in numerous process industries including petroleum, foods, and pulp and paper manufacturing, have received limited attention. In the present work, the flow in a reduced size rectangular tank equipped with a side-entering axial flow impeller, scaled down from the industrial agitation of low consistency pulp fiber suspensions, was investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), in the laminar regime (18Re120). Tuning of the PIV measuring parameters for an optimum capture of valid velocity vectors within a representative portion of the vessel is described. A detailed description of the construction and refinement of the grid and quantification of the discretization error in the CFD results is also presented. The simulation predictions were extensively evaluated by comparing the measured planar flow patterns and velocity fields at various locations in the mixing vessel. Very good agreement was found between PIV measurements and computed velocities confirming the efficiency of CFD in the analysis of mixing systems. The prediction of global mixing parameters was also evaluated. The computed impeller torque and impeller power number agreed very well with experimental measurements over the range of Re studied.

1.
Mavros
,
P.
, 2001, “
Flow Visualization in Stirred Vessels: A Review of Experimental Techniques
,”
Chem. Eng. Res. Des.
0263-8762,
79
(
2
), pp.
113
127
.
2.
Adams
,
L. W.
, and
Barigou
,
M.
, 2007, “
CFD Analysis of Caverns and Pseudo-Caverns Developed During Mixing of Non-Newtonian Fluids
,”
Chem. Eng. Res. Des.
0263-8762,
85
(
A5
), pp.
598
604
.
3.
Couerbe
,
G.
,
Fletcher
,
D. F.
,
Xuereb
,
C.
, and
Poux
,
M.
, 2008, “
Impact of Thixotrophy on Flow Patterns Induced in a Stirred Tank: Numerical and Experimental Studies
,”
Chem. Eng. Res. Des.
0263-8762,
86
(
6
), pp.
545
553
.
4.
Khopar
,
A.
,
Aubin
,
J.
,
Ruibo-Atoche
,
C.
,
Xuereb
,
C.
,
Sauze
,
N. L.
,
Bertrand
,
J.
, and
Ranade
,
V. V.
, 2004, “
Flow Generated by Radial Flow Impellers: PIV Measurements and CFD Simulations
,”
Int. J. Chem. Reactor Eng.
,
2
(
A18
), pp.
1
16
.
5.
Ranade
,
V. V.
,
Perrard
,
M.
,
Le Sauze
,
N.
,
Xuereb
,
C.
, and
Bertrand
,
J.
, 2001, “
Trailing Vortices of Rushton Turbine: PIV Measurements and CFD Simulations With Snapshot Approach
,”
Chem. Eng. Res. Des.
0263-8762,
79
(
1
), pp.
3
12
.
6.
Torré
,
J. P.
,
Fletcher
,
D. F.
,
Lasuye
,
T.
, and
Xuereb
,
C.
, 2007, “
Single and Multiphase CFD Approaches for Modeling Partially Baffled Stirred Vessels: Comparison of Experimental Data With Numerical Predictions
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
0009-2509,
62
, pp.
6246
6262
.
7.
Yoon
,
H. S.
,
Sharp
,
K. V.
,
Hill
,
D. F.
,
Adrian
,
R. J.
,
Balachandar
,
S.
,
Ha
,
M. Y.
, and
Kar
,
K.
, 2001, “
Integrated Experimental and Computational Approach to Simulation of Flow in a Stirred Tank
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
0009-2509,
56
(
23
), pp.
6635
6649
.
8.
Zalc
,
J. M.
,
Alvarez
,
M. M.
, and
Muzzio
,
F. J.
, 2001, “
Extensive Validation of Computed Laminar Flow in a Stirred Tank With Three Rushton Turbines
,”
AIChE J.
0001-1541,
47
(
10
), pp.
2144
2154
.
9.
Bakker
,
A.
, and
Fasano
,
J. B.
, 1993, “
A Computational Study of the Flow Pattern in an Industrial Paper Pulp Stock Chest With a Side-Entering Impeller
,”
AIChE Symp. Ser.
0065-8812,
89
(
293
), pp.
118
124
.
10.
Bhattacharya
,
S.
,
Gomez
,
C.
,
Soltanzadeh
,
A.
,
Taghipour
,
F.
,
Bennington
,
C. P. J.
, and
Dumont
,
G. A.
, 2010, “
Computational Modelling of Industrial Pulp Stock Chests
,”
Can. J. Chem. Eng.
0008-4034,
88
, pp.
295
305
.
11.
Ford
,
C.
,
Bennington
,
C. P. J.
, and
Taghipour
,
F.
, 2007, “
Modelling a Pilot-Scale Mixing Pulp Mixing Chest Using CFD
,”
J. Pulp Pap. Sci.
0826-6220,
33
, pp.
115
120
.
12.
Ford
,
C.
,
Ein-Mozaffari
,
F.
,
Bennington
,
C. P. J.
, and
Taghipour
,
F.
, 2006, “
Simulation of Mixing Dynamics in Agitated Pulp Stock Chests Using CFD
,”
AIChE J.
0001-1541,
52
(
10
), pp.
3562
3569
.
13.
Escudié
,
R.
, and
Liné
,
A.
, 2003, “
Experimental Analysis of Hydrodynamics in a Radially Agitated Tank
,”
AIChE J.
0001-1541,
49
(
3
), pp.
585
603
.
14.
Wu
,
H.
, and
Patterson
,
G. K.
, 1989, “
Laser Doppler Measurements of the Turbulent Flow in Stirred Vessel to Establish Scaling Rules
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
0009-2509,
44
, pp.
2207
2221
.
15.
Lee
,
K. C.
, and
Yianneskis
,
M.
, 1998, “
Turbulence Properties of the Impeller Stream of a Rushton Turbine
,”
AIChE J.
0001-1541,
44
(
1
), pp.
13
24
.
16.
Stoots
,
C.
, and
Calebrese
,
R. V.
, 1995, “
Mean Velocity Field Relative to a Rushton Turbine Blade
,”
AIChE J.
0001-1541,
41
(
1
), pp.
1
11
.
17.
Bugay
,
S.
,
Escudié
,
R.
, and
Liné
,
A.
, 2002, “
Experimental Analysis of Hydrodynamics in Axially Agitated Tank
,”
AIChE J.
0001-1541,
48
(
3
), pp.
463
475
.
18.
Sharp
,
K. V.
, and
Adrian
,
R. J.
, 2001, “
PIV Study of Small Scale Flow Structure Around a Rushton Turbine
,”
AIChE J.
0001-1541,
47
, pp.
766
778
.
19.
Jaworski
,
Z.
,
Nienow
,
A. W.
, and
Dyster
,
K. N.
, 1996, “
An LDA Study of the Turbulent-Flow Field in a Baffled Vessel Agitated by an Axial, Down-Pumping Hydrofoil Impeller
,”
Can. J. Chem. Eng.
0008-4034,
74
(
1
), pp.
3
15
.
20.
Mavros
,
P.
,
Xuereb
,
C.
, and
Bertrand
,
J.
, 1996, “
Determination of 3-D Flow Fields in Agitated Vessels by Laser Doppler Velocimetry. Effect of Impeller Type and Liquid Viscosity on the Liquid Flow Patterns
,”
Chem. Eng. Res. Des.
0263-8762,
74
(
6
), pp.
658
668
.
21.
Schäfer
,
M.
,
Yianneskis
,
M.
,
Wächter
,
P.
, and
Durst
,
F.
, 1998, “
Trailing Vortices Around a 45° Pitched-Blade Impeller
,”
AIChE J.
0001-1541,
44
(
6
), pp.
1233
1246
.
22.
Kilander
,
J.
, and
Rasmuson
,
A.
, 2005, “
Energy Dissipation and Macro Instabilities in a Stirred Square Tank Investigated Using an LE-PIV Approach and LDA Measurements
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
0009-2509,
60
(
24
), pp.
6844
6856
.
23.
Oldshue
,
J. Y.
, 1983,
Fluid Mixing Technology
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
24.
Gomez
,
C.
,
Derakhshandeh
,
B.
,
Hatzikiriakos
,
S. G.
, and
Bennington
,
C. P. J.
, 2010, “
Carbopol as a Model Fluid for Studying Mixing of Pulp Fibre Suspensions
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
0009-2509,
65
, pp.
1288
1295
.
25.
Raffel
,
M.
,
Willert
,
C.
, and
Kompehans
,
J.
, 1998,
Particle Image Velocimetry. A Practical Guide, Experimental Fluid Mechanics
,
Springer
,
Berlin
.
26.
Brown
,
D.
,
Pip
,
J.
,
Middlenton
,
J.
,
Papadopoulos
,
G.
, and
Arik
,
E.
, 2004,
Handbook of Industrial Mixing. Science and Practice
,
Wiley
,
NJ
.
27.
Dantec
, 2003, “
Dantec Dynamics Flow Map PIV Installation and User’s Guide: General PIV Reference
,” Dantec Dynamics, Ramsey, NJ.
28.
Adrian
,
R. J.
, 1986, “
An Image Shifting Technique to Resolve Directional Ambiguity of Double Pulsed Laser Velocimetry
,”
Appl. Opt.
0003-6935,
25
(
21
), pp.
3855
3858
.
29.
Adrian
,
R. J.
, 1997, “
Dynamic Ranges of Velocity and Spatial Resolution of Particle Image Velocimetry
,”
Meas. Sci. Technol.
0957-0233,
8
(
12
), pp.
1393
1398
.
30.
Bujalski
,
J. M.
,
Yang
,
W.
,
Nikolov
,
J.
,
Solnordal
,
C. B.
, and
Schwarz
,
M. P.
, 2006, “
Measurement and CFD Simulation of Single-Phase Flow in Solvent Extraction Pulsed Column
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
0009-2509,
61
(
9
), pp.
2930
2938
.
31.
Escudié
,
R.
,
Bouyer
,
D.
, and
Liné
,
A.
, 2004, “
Characterization of Trailing Vortices Generated by a Rushton Turbine
,”
AIChE J.
0001-1541,
50
(
1
), pp.
75
86
.
32.
Svensson
,
F. J. E.
, and
Rasmuson
,
A.
, 2006, “
PIV Measurements in a Liquid-Liquid System at Volume Percentages up to 10% Dispersed Phase
,”
Exp. Fluids
0723-4864,
41
(
6
), pp.
917
931
.
33.
Collignon
,
M. L.
,
Crine
,
M.
,
Verdin
,
E.
,
Chaubard
,
J. F.
,
Peeters
,
L.
,
Dessoy
,
S.
, and
Toye
,
D.
, 2008, “
A Study of Mixing by PIV and PLIF in Bioreactor of Cells Animals Culture
,”
Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Mixing in Industrial Processes, ISMIP VI
, Niagara Falls, Canada.
34.
Myers
,
K. J.
,
Ward
,
R. W.
, and
Bakker
,
A.
, 1997, “
A Digital Particle Image Velocimetry Investigation of Flow Field Instabilities of Axial Flow Impellers
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
0098-2202,
119
, pp.
623
632
.
35.
Weetman
,
R. J.
, and
Oldshue
,
J. Y.
, 1988, “
Power Flow and Shear Flow Characteristics of Mixing Impellers
,”
Proceedings of the European Conference on Mixing
, Pavia, Italy.
36.
Bakker
,
A.
, and
Marshall
,
E.
, 2004, “
Computational Fluid Mixing
,”
Handbook of Industrial Mixing. Science and Practice
,
Wiley
,
NJ
.
37.
Celik
,
I.
,
Guhia
,
U.
,
Roache
,
P. J.
, and
Freitas
,
C. J.
, 2008, “
Procedure for Estimation and Reporting of Discretization Error in CFD Applications
,” Technical Report: Editorial Policy of J. Fluids Eng., West Virginia University, WV.
38.
Keane
,
R. D.
, and
Adrian
,
R. J.
, 1992, “
Theory of Cross-Correlation Analysis of PIV Images
,”
Appl. Sci. Res.
0003-6994,
49
(
3
), pp.
191
215
.
You do not currently have access to this content.