Two geometric modalities were investigated to determine their effects on the degree of uniformity of the flow issuing from a manifold through a discrete set of exit ports. The goal of the investigation was to demonstrate how these geometric parameters can be used to achieve a high degree of exit-flow uniformity. The first investigated modality is the area ratio, which compares the total outflow area of all the exit ports with the cross-sectional area of the manifold. The second modality is the extent of pressure loading downstream of the exit ports of the manifold. The investigation was facilitated by numerical simulation for which an appropriate turbulence model was used. Three parameters were varied during the course of the research: (a) the area ratio, (b) the downstream pressure loading characterized by the length-to-diameter ratio of the outflow tubes that are attached to the exit ports, and (c) the Reynolds number. It was found that the area ratio parameter had a marked effect on the uniformity of the outflow from the manifold. Quantitative values of the area ratio corresponding to specified degrees of uniformity (i.e., 2%, 5%, and 10%) were identified. This information can be used as a guideline for manifold design. The imposition of the downstream pressure loading was also demonstrated to have a significant effect on the degree of uniformity, but that effect was not as strong as the effect of the area ratio. The manifold pressure was found to increase from the inlet of the manifold to the downstream end of the manifold. The direction of the jetlike discharge from the exit ports of the manifold into a large collection domain was found to vary along the length of the manifold, with inclined jets emanating from the upstream end and perpendicular jets at the downstream end. Over the range of investigated Reynolds numbers, from 40,000 to 200,000, the degree of uniformity of the mass effusion from the exit ports was found to be unaffected. The results of the numerical simulations were confirmed by experiments.

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# Systematic Approaches for Design of Distribution Manifolds Having the Same Per-Port Outflow

Andrew W. Chen
awchen@mmm.com

,
Andrew W. Chen

3M Company

, Building 260-6N-04, St. Paul, MN 55144
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Ephraim M. Sparrow

Ephraim M. Sparrow

Mechanical Engineering,

esparrow@umn.edu
University of Minnesota

, Minneapolis, MN 55455
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Andrew W. Chen

Ephraim M. Sparrow

*J. Fluids Eng*. Jun 2009, 131(6): 061101 (9 pages)

**Published Online:**May 13, 2009

Article history

Received:

January 18, 2008

Revised:

November 29, 2008

Published:

May 13, 2009

Citation

Chen, A. W., and Sparrow, E. M. (May 13, 2009). "Systematic Approaches for Design of Distribution Manifolds Having the Same Per-Port Outflow." ASME. *J. Fluids Eng*. June 2009; 131(6): 061101. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3111256

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