A closed set of volume averaged equations for modeling turbulence in the carrier phase of particle-laden flows is presented. The equations incorporate a recently developed dissipation transport equation that contains an additional production of dissipation term due to particle surfaces. In the development, it was assumed that each coefficient was the sum of the coefficient for single phase flow and a coefficient quantifying the contribution of the particulate phase. To assess the effects of this additional production term, a numerical model was developed and applied to particles falling in a channel of downward turbulent air flow. Boundary conditions were developed to ensure that the production of turbulent kinetic energy due to mean velocity gradients and particle surfaces balanced with the turbulent dissipation near the wall. The coefficients associated with the production of dissipation due to mean velocity gradients and particle surfaces were varied to assess the effects of the dispersed phase on the carrier phase turbulent kinetic energy across the channel. The results show that the model predicts a decrease in turbulent kinetic energy near the wall with increased particle loading, and that the dissipation coefficients play a critical role in predicting the turbulent kinetic energy in particle-laden turbulent flows.

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