The approach taken was to analyze the results in a manner consistent with application by design engineers to new and existing applications, while providing some insight into the processes that are occurring. This paper deals with predicting the initiation of cavitation, cavitation impacts on the contraction coefficient (Cc), as well as noncavitation impacts on discharge coefficient (Cd) from L/D of five sharp-edge orifices over a turning angle range between 60 deg and 120 deg. The results show that in the cavitation regime, Cc is controlled by the cavitation parameter (Kcav), where the data follow the 12 power with Kcav, and inception of cavitation occurs at a Kcav of 1.8. In the noncavitation regime for conditions where the cross velocity is 0 the data are consistent with the first order equation relating head loss (HL) to the dynamic pressure where KL is constant and is consistent with in-line orifices. Cross flow has a significant impact on loss coefficient and depends on both the turning angle and manifold inlet to orifice exit velocity ratio.

1.
Nurick
,
W. H.
, 1976, “
Orifice Cavitation and Its Effect on Spray Mixing
,”
ASME Trans. J. Fluids Eng.
0098-2202,
98
(
4
), pp.
681
687
.
2.
Nurick
,
W. H.
,
Ohanian
,
T.
,
Talley
,
D.
and
Strakey
,
P.
, 2008, “
Impact of L/D on 90 Degree Sharp-Edge Orifice Flow With Manifold Passage Cross Flow
,” submitted.
3.
Martynov
,
S.
,
Mason
,
D.
, and
And Heikal
,
M.
, 2005, “
Hydrodynamic Similarity of Cavitation Flows in Nozzles
Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Multiphase Flow, Heat Mass Transfer and Energy Conversion
,
Xi’am, China
.
4.
Mishra
,
C.
, and
Peles
,
Y.
, 2005, “
Size Scale Effects on Cavitating Flows Through Microorifices Entrenched in Rectangular Microchannels
,”
J. Microelectromech. Syst.
1057-7157,
14
(
55
), pp.
987
999
.
5.
Heiniger
,
K. C.
, 2001, “
Introduction to the Flow States in Water Jet Systems
,”
WJM–2001
, Krakow.
6.
Schmidt
,
D. P.
,
Rutland
,
C. J.
, and
Corradini
,
M. L.
, 1997, “
A Numerical Study of Cavitating Flow Through Various Nozzle Shapes
,” SAE Paper No. 971597.
7.
Knapp
,
R. T.
,
Daily
,
J. W.
, and
Hammitt
,
F. G.
, 1970,
Cavitation
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
8.
Weisbach
,
J.
, 1885,
Die Experimental Hydraulik
.
9.
Idelchik
,
I. E.
, 2003,
Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance
,
3rd ed.
,
Jaico
,
Mumbai
.
10.
Vernard
,
J. K.
, 1954,
Elementary Fluid Dynamics
,
3rd ed.
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
11.
Perry
,
R. H.
, and
Chilton
,
C. H.
, 1963,
Chemical Engineers Handbook
,
5th ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
You do not currently have access to this content.