Jets and fountains with reversing buoyancy occur in numerous natural and man-made situations (1) including, for example, oxygen jets directed into molten metal furnaces (2), the overshoot stage of a smokestack discharging into a stratified atmosphere (3), and underwater volcanic eruptions (4). For simplicity, we assume an upward directed jet or fountain with downward buoyancy as shown in Fig. 1, although the results apply equally to downward directed jets and fountains with upward buoyancy. The flow structure consists of a rising central core, surrounded by an annular downward flow (5,6), and under appropriate conditions includes mixing (7,8) and phase mingling (9,10). The primary parameter governing this flow structure is the Richardson number (11), which is the ratio of...
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Rise Height for Negatively Buoyant Fountains and Depth of Penetration for Negatively Buoyant Jets Impacting an Interface
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7.
Corriveau
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Baines
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W. D.
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A pH Indicator Technique for Measurement of Concentration During Mixing in a Container by a Negative Buoyant Jet
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Shy
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9.
Banks
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R. B.
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Chandrasekhara
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D. V.
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Experimental Investigation of the Penetration of a High Velocity Gas Jet Through a Liquid Surface
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10.
Friedman
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P. D.
,
Winthrop
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A. L.
, and
Katz
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J.
, 2001, “
Droplet Formation and Size Distributions from an Immiscible Interface Impinged with a Vertical Negatively Buoyant Jet
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11.
Friedman
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P. D.
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Katz
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The Flow and Mixing Mechanisms Caused by the Impingement of an Immiscible Interface With a Vertical Jet
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12.
Thorarinsson
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13.
Wohletz
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K. H.
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Explosive Magma-Water Interactions: Thermodynamics, Explosion Mechanisms, and Field Studies
,”
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14.
Zimanowski
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B.
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15.
Mastin
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L. G.
and
Witter
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J. B.
, 2000, “
The Hazards of Eruptions Through Lakes and Seawater
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J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res.
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